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Full text of "Introduction to the German language; comprising a German grammar, with an appendix of important tables and other matter; and a German reader ... and a vocabulary adapted to the selections"

«?#V \ 



INTRODUCTION 



THE GERMAN LANGUAGE 



COMPRISING 



A GERMAN GRAMMAR, 

WITH 

AN APPENDIX 

OF IMPORTANT TABLES AND OTHER MATTER; 
AND 

A GERMAN READER, 

CONSISTING ÖF SELECTIONS FROM THE CLASSIC LITERATÜRE OF 
GERMAN'/, ACCOMPAMED BY 

EXPLANATORY NOTES, 

AND 

A VOCABULARY 

ADAPTED TO THE SELECTIONS. 



BY 

DAVID FOSDICK, JR. 



ANDOVER: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY GOULD & NEWMAN. 
NEW YORK : 

CORNER OF FULTON AND NASSAU STS. 

1838. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1838, 

BY GOULD & NEWMAN, 

in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of Massachusetts. 






PREF ACE. 



The work here presented to the public is designed to afford, in it- 
self, sufficient means for attaining a very considerable acquaintance 
with the German language. The beginner in the study of this lan- 
guage has hitherto found it requisite to set out with the purchase of 
three several books, a Grammar, a Reader, and Dictionary, in order 
to regard hirnseif as adequately equipped for serious action. This ne- 
cessity may be avoided, if the present volume should, happily, be 
found tolerably well adapted to its purpose ; and he who rnakes use 
of it may proceed at once from the due study of its contents to the 
perusal of any productions of German literature which attract his 
attention. 

The Grammar contained in this book is not intended as a mere 
skeleton of the structure of the German language. Completeness 
has been one of my aims in its preparation. Although it is some- 
what concise, it will be found, I think, to comprehend a greater 
number of importantgrammatical principles than any German Gram- 
mar heretofore published in English. Its materials have been deri- 
ved mainly from the best German Grammars (of foreign or Ameri- 
can origin,) to which I had access, and, to some little extent, 
from rny own Observation. I have endeavored to reproduce here 
every useful principle of German grammar which has in any way 
met my knowledge. 

The general scheine of the Grammar is new. The declension, 
agreement, and government of words are not treated of in difierent 
and distant parts of the book, but all that relates to one part of speech 
is presented under one head, not confusedly, I trust, yet in connec- 
tion. Accuracy and convenience of method, both in the main and 
in detail, constitute one of the most essential requisites in a Gram- 
mar of any language. It is not too much to say that such German 
Grammars as have been published in English have not been special- 
ly praiseworthy in regard to this requisite. The contents of a Gram- 
mar should be so arranged that an inquirer may always know just 
where to look for the explanation of any grammatical fact, instead of 



IV PREFACE. 

being obliged, as he too often is, to search hither and thither without 
chart or compass. 

It is common to introduce into German Grammars exercises for 
practise in writing German. This custom, which tends to augment 
the size of Grammars so much, I have not followed, for two reasons : 
first, because a Grammar does not seem to me a strictly suitable re- 
pository for such Exercises ; and, seeondly, because in my opinion 
there is a much better way of learning to write German. Let the 
learner begin by translating some very easy German into English, 
and when he has forgotten the words of the original text, (perhaps a 
day or two afterwards,) let him attempt to re-translate the English 
into German. Comparison of the result with the original will show 
him his faults, and lead to amendment. 

The Selections in this volume have been made from the writings 
of the chief authors of elegant literature in Germany, especially fron 
those which afforded convenientopportunity of presenting, eitheren- 
tire pieces, or at least extracts not unintelligible and useless when 
withdrawn from their connection. 

In conclusion, I must add an acknowledgement of my conscious- 
ness that this work manifests very many deficiencies, and of my fear, 
indeed expeetation, that many of which 1 am not at all conscious 
will be detected by the scrutiny of abier German scholars. 

Some typographical errors owe their existence tothe circumstance 
that, being twenty or thirty miles distant from the press which issues 
the work, I have labored under a considerable disadvantage in cor- 
recting the sheets. 

As to other points I leave the work to speak for itself. Should 
any one who undertakes to make use of it find fault with its execu- 
tion, 1 can only say to him : Would it were better ! for your sake, 
for my sake, for the general sake of all who have to do with it— cx- 
cepting, perhaps, the critics. 

ÖAVID FOSDICK, JR. 

Groton, Mass, 
Sept. 1, 1838, 



CONTENTS. 



Preface, 



Page. 

3 



GRAMMAR. 
PART I. ELEMENTS OF WORDS. 



Chapter I. Alphabet, 


13 


1. Simple Leiters, 


13 


IL Compound Letters, 


14 


Chapter IL Pronunciation, .... 


14 


I. Simple Vowels, 


14 


II. Diphthongs, 


16 


III. Simple Consonants, 


17 


IV. Combined Consonants, 


19 


V. Accent, .... 


20 


Chapter III. Orthography, .... 


21 


I. Letters, .... 


21 


IL Syllables, .... 


22 



PART II. FORMS OF WORDS. 



Chapter I. Article, .... 
I. Variation, . 
IL Determination of Form, 

III. Position, . 

IV. Additional Pecaliarities, 



23 
23 
24 
24 
25 



Vi 



CONTENTS. 



Chapter H Noun, .... 
L Variation, . 

Gender of Nouns, 
Declension of Nouns, 

A. Common Nouns, 

B. Proper Nouns, 

II. Determination of Form, 

Nominative, 
Genitive, 
Dative, 
Accusative, 

III. Position, , 

Nominative, 
Genitive, 
Dative, 
Accusative, 

Chapter EL Adjective, 

I. Variation, . 

Comparison, 

Declension, 
IL Determination of Form 
III. Position, . 

Chapter IV. Pronoun, 

I. Variation, . 

Personal Pronouns, 
Relative Pronouns, 
Interrogative Pronouns, 
Possessive Pronouns, 
Demonstrative Pronouns, 
Distributive Pronouns, 
Indefinite Pronouns, 

IL Determination of Form, 

III. Position, . 

IV. Additional Peculiariiies, 



CONTENTS. 



VU 



Chapter V. Verb, 

I. Variation, . 

General Statement, 
Auxiliary Verbs, 
Regulär Verbs, 
Irregulär Verbs, 
Reflexive Verbs, 
Impersonal Verbs, 
Compound Verbs, 

IL Determination of Form 
Voice, 
Mode, 

A. Infinitive, . 

B. Subjunctive, 
Tense, 

Number and Person, 
Participles, 

A. Present Participle 

B. Past Participle, 
Auxiliary Verbs, 

III. Position, . 
Participles, 
Compound Verbs, 

Chapter VI. Particles, 

I. General Statement, 

II. Position, . 

III. Additional Peculiarities, 



APPENDIX, 107 

A. Nouns of the same form but difFerent genders and 

meanings, 109 

B. Nouns which have more than one plural form, 110 



Vlll 



CONTENTS. 



C. Nouns defective in their declension, . . 111 

D. Adjectives which govern the Genitive, . . 112 

E. Verbs which govern the Genitive, . . 112 

F. Prepositions which govern the Genitive, . . 113 

G. Cases of the Genitive Absolute, . . .114 
H. Adjectives which govern the Dative, . . 115 
I. Neuter Verbs which govern the Dative, . . 117 
J. Prepositions which govern the Dative, or Accusa- 

tive, orboth, 119 

K. Conjunctions which, preceding the Verb, cause 

the Nominative to follow the Verb, . . 121 

L. German Numerais, 122 

M. Use of fyaben and fei)U with Intransitive Verbs, 125 

N. Irregulär Verbs, ...... 131 

O. Compound Verbs, 151 

P. Adverbs forme d from other words by adding the 

letter 3, 153 

Q. German Versification, 154 

R. German Divisions of Time, .... 155 

S. German Abbreviations, 156 



SELECTIONS. 




PART I. PROSE. 




Der 2öo(f mtb ber (scfyäfer, . 


161 


X)k ©au3, 


161 


Der ©traitß, 


. 162 


Der ©Her, urtb ber £irfrf), .... 


162 


fyevhxkö, 


163 


Der 2öotf auf bem gobfcette, 


163 


Der D?abe mtb ber gucfjä, . 


164 



CONTENTS. 



IX 



3ei>$ unb ba$ <&d)af, . 

Der §trfrf) unb ber %\xd)$, . 

Die C5tcf)e, .... 

Der Dornjtraurf), 

Der n>t(be Apfelbaum, . 

Der Papagei) unb bie 9iad)tiaal{, 

X)ie Rieben Ämbtem, 

Slmmttaö, .... 

gantet unb Sftafcfytb, 

Der Intngruje Araber, . 

Seeräuber unb ein afrifamfd)e$ Stoff, 

Da3 twjenbfyaft «£ßctb, . 

Die 2fo$fpradje beg £eqen3, 

^)robe ber männlichen Ziehe, . 

„ 2üt$ meinem ?ebeu/' . 

2lug bem „ £einricf) t>on £>fterbiugen/ 

Da3 Snquifftion^gertc^t, 



PART II. POETRY. 

Qaö 3of)anntftt)ürmrf)cn, 

Der @fel unb ba$ ^ferb, 

X)ie bei)ben D^eifenben, . 

Die Stufenleiter, . 

Der £ob unb feine ^anbibaten, 

Der bestrafte eingebttbete ©ol)n, 

Da$ ©cfytcffal, 

Die Äafce, bie alte Wiau$, unb bie junge Wla\\$, 

Der ^erjTfd)e Sßauer mit grücfyten, 

^einrirf) ber SSoafer, 

Parabel üom (Menfpiegef unb ben ©djnetbent, 

©utc Tiafyt, 

9Jttein $ater(anb, 

£rütftteb *>or ber ©cfytacfyt, .... 



X CONTENTS. 




©etjHtcfye lieber, 


. 207 


T)Ci$ Söfümdjcn 2ßmtberf)otb, 


. 209 


Üftuttertäubctct), 


. 212 


£)ie ^itcjenb, 


. 213 


£5eS 3Käbrf)cnö ßfage, .... 


. 215 


3fn bie Scutfcfyen, ..... 


. 216 


VOCABÜLARY, 


. 219 



INDEX OF AÜTHORS. 



Anonvmous, .... 189, 194 

Bürger, 209,212 

Catel, 190 

Engel, 171, 173 

Fouque, 204 

Gellert, 195 

Gessner, 168 

Gleim, 189 

Goethe, 175 

Haller, 213 

Hardenberg. (See Nova- 
lis.) 



Klopstock, 200 

Körner, 204, 206 

Krummacher, 167 

Lessing, 161 — 167 

MlCHLER, 216 

Nicolai, 197 

Novalis (or Hardenberg), 176, 
207, 208 

Pfeffel, 191, 192 

Richter (J. P. F.), . 174,175 
Schiller, .... 180,215 
Schlegel (A. W.), ... 202 
Will a mov 19C 



GRÄMMÄR 



THE GERMAN LANGUAGE ; 



APPENDIX 



BY 

DAVID FOSDICK, JR. 



ANDOVER: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY GOULD & NEWMAN. 
NEW YORK : 

CORNER OF FULTON AND NASSAU STS. 

18 38. 



GERMAN GRAMMAR 



PART I. 
ELEMENTS OF WORDS 



CHAP. I. 




ALPHABET. 




§ 1. Simple Letters. 




Letters. 


Names. Eng. representation. 


1. 21, a 


Ah 


A, a 


2. % d 


Ä 


Ä, ä 


3. SB, h 


Bay 


B, b 


4. flE, c . . 


Tsay 


C, c 


5. £>, b . 


Day 


D, d 


6. (£, e 


A 


E,e 


7. &f ■ ■ 


Eff 


F, f 


8. ©, g . . 


Ghay 


G,g 


9. §, !) . . 


Hah 


H,h 


10. % i 


E 


I, i 


IL 3, j 


Yot 


J,j 


12. Ä, f 


Kah 


K,k 


13. «, r . 


Ell 


L,l 


14. SW, tn 


Emra 


M,m 


15. SR, n 


Enn 


N,n 


16. P, o 





0,o 


17. t), ö 


Ö 


Ö, ö 


18. %p 


Pay 


. P,p 


19. D, q 


Koo 


Q,q 



14 



PRONUNCIATION. 






Letter:. 


Namea. 


Eng. representatio*. 


20. Sä, r 


Err 


. R,r 


21. ©, f, $ . 


Ess 




S, s 


22. Z, t 


Tay 




. T,t 


23. U, U 


Oo 




U,u 


24. Ü, ü 


Ü 




Ü,ü 


25. $, t> 


Fow 




• V,v 


26. SB, tt) 


Way 




W,w 


27. 3f, r 


Iks 




X,x 


28. g, d . . 


Ipsilon 




Y,y 


29. 3/ a 


Tsett 




Z, z 


§ 2. Compound Letters. 




Letters. 


Names. Eng. represtntalion. 


d, . . 


Tsay-hah 


ch 


et . 


Tsay-kah 


ck 


ff • • 


Eff-eff 


ff 


(l . . . 


Ess-tay 


st 


• . 


Ess-tsett 


sz 


« . . . 


Tay-tsett 


tz 


c 


HAP. 11. 







PRONUNCIATION. 



a. 



a. 



c. 



§ 3. Sounds of the Simple Vowels. 

Sounded nearly as a in the English word far ; e. g. Gbahe, 

gift, Stfter, age. (See Obs. 1.) 
Nearly, if not precisely, like ai in the English word fair ; 

e. g. $äter, fathers, $fäqer, plaintifT. 
Like a in the English word fate ; e. g. 2e6ett, life, 5©eft, 

world. 
As the English e in me ; e. g. SSitö, image, immer, ever. 
As the English o in sore ; e. g. £fyor, fool, ©trom, stream. 



PRONUNCIATION. 15 

0. Nearly as the English u in für, or, more exactly, as the 
French eu in leur ; e. g. ©ötfye, Göthe, böfe, bad. 

IL As the English u in rule ; e. g. Xugettt), virtue, &\\i, hat. 

IL As the French w ; ©lücf, fortune, gürfl, prince. There 
is no sound like it in English. (See Obs. 2.) 

9. Its proper German sound is the same as that of the t. (See 
Obs. 3.) 

Observations. 

§ 4. Observ. I. The sound of the Germ, a is what is 
termed broad, verging towards that of a in the English word 
warm. 

§ 5. Obs. II. To those who have not already acquired the 
sound of the French u the following directions may be use- 
ful. Place the lips in the very position which they would oc- 
cupy in whistling, and then form a vowel, emitting the breath 
exactly as in whistling ;* this sound will be the French u or 
German iL Another mode of obtaining the pronunciation of 
this letter is the following. Utter the sound of oo in moon. 
In the midst of its prolonged utterance, suddenly thrust the 
tongue forward against the lower teeth, and you have the 
sound desired. 

§ 6. Obs. III. In words introduced into the German lan- 
guage from the Greek, the Greek letter v is commonly repre- 
sented by the German t), which in these words is sounded by 
many persons as iL E. g. (Sijttagoge, synagogue, is often 
pronounced as if it were speit (SitttägOge. 

§ 7. Obs. IV. All the vowels are sometimes long and 

* It is usual with teachers of French to direct the learner to 
place his lips in the above position, and then try to pronounce 
the u. This is wrong ; for the pure English u may be sound- 
ed nearly as well with the lips in that position as in any other. 
There is this difFerence between the English wand the French„. 
viz. that the former requires a motion of the tongue after it is 
commenced, but the latter none, it being a mere vocal emission 
of the breath, with the lips and tongue in one continued position, 



16 DIPHTHONGS. 

sometimes short. By this is meant only that the same sound 
is more or less protracted. E. g. a is long in ($abc, gift, and 
short in ^ttatttt, man. The distinction belongs only to ac- 
cented syllables. (See § 23.) In other syllables the vowels 
are neither long nor short. No invariable rule can be given 
in respect to the length of accented syllables.* 

§ 8. Obs. V. Whenever a vowel is doubled in the same 
syllable, the sound is protracted ; e. g. <&taat, State, (See, sea 
(B>d)00f> r cap. A doubled vowel is hardly ever sounded twice 
except (1) in words compounded of one word ending and an 
other beginning with the same vowel, e. g. fee^ettbtcjett, to end 
and (2) in cases when the vowel e precedes the characteris' 
tic termination of a word, e. g. ©C^ett, seas, in which the ett 
is the plural termination. 

§ 9. Obs. VI. It is usually the case that e after t is silent, 
as in English in the words field, mien, etc., but the t is pro- 
longed ; e. g. %kf, deep, ^rieg, war. In words of foreign 
origin the e is often sounded, as also in case the te precedes 
the characteristic termination of a word. E. g. ^tjrorte, his- 
tory, with four syllables ; $ttten, knees, with two, the tt being 
the plural termination. 

§ 10. Sounds of the Diphthongs. 
OU Sounded as the English word ay (meaning yes), or as ai 
in aisle is very often pronounced. If this sound be uttei- 
ed slowly, it will be seen to be compounded of the sound 
of a in far and that of e in me. E. g. genfer, emperor, 
ftattt, grove. 

* I believe it to be a pretty general rule, though not by any 
means invariable, that a vowel is long, if at the end of a word, 
or if followed by a different vowel or a single consonant in 
the same word ; short, if followed by two or more consonants 
or a Compound one in the same word. It will be easier to 
learn the exceptions to this rule, than to acquire a correct pro- 
liunciation without any rule. It should be remarked, that cus- 
tom varies in Germany as to the length of syllables in many 
words. 



SIxMPLE CONSONANTS. 17 

-GU. Nearly as ou in the English word our, but with more of the 

sound of the German et ; e. g. D?attm, space, $ratt, wife. 
d" lt. Nearly as oi in the English word voice ; e. g. © äu(e, a 

pillar, Zäunte, trees. (See Obs. 1. below.) 
Ct. Like ei in the English word lieight ; e. g. $Öem, wine, 

®(etd)bctt, equality. 
Cit. An intermediate sound between that of alt and that of ct. 

(See Obs. 1. below.) 
Ct. Like the English oi in voice. (See Obs. 1. below.) It sei- 

dorn occurs in true German words. 

Observalions. 

§ 11. Observ. I. The three diphthongs, Dt, Cit, du, are 

sounded very much alike. The first is the simple English oi in 
voice ; the second is somewhat closer ; the last is rather more 
broad, pronounced with the mouth opened wide. 

§ 12. Obs. II. Whenever i) occurs after (l, e, or o, form- 
ing a diphthong with either of these letters, it is sounded as if 
it were t ; e. g. gre^hctt, or, as it is sometimes speit, gfretbeir, 
freedom. 

§ 13. Obs. III. In case of other combinations of the vow- 
els than those which have been mentioned, each is sounded 
separately. In the words pfltt, and (ntt, however, the vowel 
sounds are uttered very rapid ly, being pronounced like our 
English word ive. 

§ 14. Sounds of the Simple Consonants. 

b. Sounded as in the English word habe; except at the end 

of words, where it is sounded hard, like bj). E. g. 53ctt, 

bed, ©rar), grave. 
C. Like h unless it Stands before e, t, d, o, ü, or i), when it 

is sounded as ts. E. g. drebti, credit, (üapitct, chapter, 

£)Ceatt, ocean. 
b. As in the English word do ; except at the end of words, 
2* 



18 



SIMPLE CONSONANTS. 



where it is sounded somewhat hard, as dt. E. g. Bonner, 
thunder, @rab, degree. (See Obs. 1.) 

f. As in the English word off E. g. gelb, field, <heft, han- 
die. 

g. Commonly as the hard English g in go. At the end of a 
syllable and between two vowels it is often sounded by 
many persons somewhat differently. (See Obs. 2.) E. g. 
gehen, to go, £ag, day, £egeu, blessing. 

\). Commonly as the English h in he. After a vowel in the 

same syllable it is not sounded at all, but it prolongs the 

vowel. E. g. haben, to have, ü)tt, him, £at)tt, a cock, 

Ufyr, hour. 
j. As y in yes. E. g. 3wtg, young, 3^/ yoke. 
t As in English. E. g. ßaft, cold, fetf, bold. 
L As in English. E. g. £tebe, love, 25(att, leaf. 
Itt* As in English. E. g. 9J?eer, sea, 2fett, office. 
lt. As in English. E. g. s JiCtbe(, needle, Dftltg, ring, franf, 

sick. 
p. As in English. E. g. ^apjt, pope, flippe, puppet, 
q. Like L E. g. Duat, torment, Duette, fountain. This 

letter never occurs without the vowel U and the qu is al- 

ways sounded as in the English word quell. 
t\ English r rolled, as in French. E. g. 9carr, fool, 5Kel)r, 

reed. 
f. As the hard English s in sound. E. g. ©Ottlte, sun, nnffeit, 

to know. 
h As the common English t. E. g. Xabet, blame, fetten, 

to lead. (See Obs. 3.) 
i). Like/. E. g. tteft, füll, SSctter, father. Between two 

vowels it is generally somewhat softened. E. g. grcttcf, 

malice. 
W. Nearly as the English v. E. g. $öeft, world, ^ötttme, 

widow. (See Obs. 4.) 
X. As the English x mßx. E. g. Syxe, witch, Zext, text 
g» As Zs in English. E. g. sjBitrgei, root, 3^, chintz. 



COMPOUND CONSONANTS. 19 

Observations. 

§ 15. Obs. I. There are cases in English in which the let- 
ter d at the end of words is sounded hard as in German ; e. g. 
the words cracked, stitffed, etc. 

§ 16. Obs. IL $ is never, in true German words, sounded 
like our g in genius, or like the soft g in French, which has 
the sound of z in the English word azure. The German 
sound referred to must be learned from the mouth of a teacher. 

§ 17. Obs. III. In words derived from the Latin, when t 
is followed by t and another vowel, it is generally pronounced 
like $♦ E. g. (Tratte, grace, ^CtttOlt, portion. Nearly all 
these words, however, are very commonly speit with $ instead 
oft 

§ 18. Obs. IV. The most common sound of the letter tt> in 
Germany is not exactly like our v, but intermediate between 
that and h* 

§ 19. Obs. V. When one of these simple consonants is 
doubled in any word, it should be sounded with special force. 
E. g. ^fttttetfauf, semitone. 

§ 20. Sounds of combined Consonants. 

d). (a) When it follovvs a r 0, or u, it has a hard guttural 
sound, like that of ch in the Scotch word loch, lake.t 
E. g. ^drf), roof, Slod), cook, fucfyett, to seek. 

(b) When it follows c r t, ä, 0, it, or any consonant, it has 
a very peculiar sound, formed in the front part of the 
mouth. E. g. ^crf), pitch, gfetcfyeit, toequal, 25üd)er, 
books, ©torrf), stork. (See Obs. 1. below.) 

(c) At the beginning of words it is generally pronounced 
like f. E. g. Qüjvift, Christ, tyov, choir. 

* Precisely like the Spanish b between two vowels. 

f To those acquainted with Hebrew it may be of use to know 
that this sound is the same as that of the Hebrew letter 
Hheth (n). 



20 ACCENT. 

(d) Followed by f it is sounded like f, unless the f arise 
only from a change of termination, or belong to an- 
other root. E. g. in 23itd)fe, box, and in %\ld)$, fox, it 
is pronounced like f ; but in ^acr)^, contracted geni- 
tive of X)0.dj / and in the Compound verb ttacfyfebetl, 
to look after, it is guttural. 

tf. Sounded as ck in English. E. g. gadcf, torch, £ecfc, 
covering. 

ß. As f alone. E. g. ?aß, tired, £reiß, hot 

$. As $ alone. E. g. ©ö^e, idol, <&{$, seat. 

$f). Like f. E. g. ^f)t)(Tf, natural philosophy, $r)tfofopb, 
philosopher. 

rb. As r alone. E. g. D^hetortf, rhetoric, Dftfjeüt, Rhine. 

fd). As the English sh. E. g. (5cf)aaf r sheep, gifd), fish. 

tb. As t alone. E. g. %\)t\{, part, £()Cder, dollar. 

Observations. 

§ 21. Obs. I. The second sound of d) may be very nearly 
represented in English by the letters hy. If, for example, to the 
English word yea (pronounced ya, not ye,) the aspirate h be 
prefixed (so as to make hya) the sound will be almost exactly 
like that of the last syllable in the German word SBäcfye, brooks. 

§ 22. Obs. IL In all cases not noticed above, when two or 
more consonants come together, each is distinctly sounded. 
E. g. ©ttabe, grace, Ättepf, button, ^jtfftg, crafty, ^fmgfl* 
feft, Pentecost, ^flidjt, duty. — In fd)(id)t r smooth, and 
(ScfyttHtlfi, swelling, the fd) must be sounded as before direct- 
ed, and then the following consonant. So in all similar cases. 

ACCENT. 

§ 23. By this is meant, the stress laid on a particular sylla- 
ble in a word. In a proper use of language it should be dis- 
tinguished from emphasis ; the latter signifying, stress laid on 
a word or words on account of their particular import in a sen- 
tence. Correctness in accent is best acquired by pronouncing 
German verse according to the laws of metre, or by reading 



ORTHOGRAPHY. LETTERS. 21 

German books in which the accent is marked. All that can 
be said is, that the accent falls commonly upon the most im- 
portant syllable, or that part of the word which is the invaria- 
ble root, variable terminations and inseparable prefixes almost 
never taking it. Yet there are exceptions to this remark ; 
e. g. lebettbtg, living, 3((tat, altar, in which words the accent 
is on the second syllable. 



CHAP. III. 
ORTHOGRAPHY. 



LETTERS. 

§ 24. Obs. I. We have already presented the proper forms 
of German letters in print. German books are sometimes 
printed in the Latin characters, (i. e. those which we employ,) 
with such additional marks as are found in the English repre- 
sentation we have given of the German aiphabet. (See the 
Alphabet) The German hand-writing is peculiar. It has 
little resemblance to the English currenthand, and less to En- 
glish or German print. 

§ 25. Obs. IL The capital letters are used in all cases in 
which they are used in English, excepting that the pronoun of 
the firstperson, trf), is usually written withoutone, and thatby 
some writers they are omitted in adjectives formed from proper 
nouns. (This remark applies only to cases when these words 
do not commence a sentence.) But further, in German all 
nouns, and all words used as nouns, begin with a capital letter, 
as also all pronouns denoting a person addressed, and often 
words which bear a particular stress of meaning in a sentence. 
E. g. tüte trf) gelaufen hin, how I have run, ber 90tomt, the 
man, bcu? Grfien, the meal ; ©tt, thou, <&ie, you, %bv, your ; 
frattjöjlfdjett (in many books, when in the midst of a sen- 
tence) ; t>a3 Qrme ^öcfyjre, the one highest thing (Schiller's 
Maria Stuart, Act IL Scene 6), 



22 SYLLABLES. 

§ 26. Obs. III. In the early days of the German language 
C was always employed where now ä appears. Thus ^ftägfce, 
maids, was written 50?egt>e, (&täbte, cities, ^tebte, etc. In 
many words orthographical usage respecting these letters is 
at the present time very variable in Gcrmany. Thus, e. g., 
some persons write ©rert^e, limits, others (dränge ; some ed)t, 
genuine, others ärf)t* 

§ 27. Obs. IV. Many writers Substitute i for i) in all words 
really German. Thus grefrjbcit, freedom, is often written 
greifreit ; B^ei), two, 3n)ei ; fei)rt, to be, fein, etc. 

§ 28. Obs. V. The letter ü is often substituted by some 
writers for L E. g. rDÜrfen, to work, for tt>irfen\ 

§ 29. Obs. VI. There are discrepancies as to the use of 
certain consonants. Some always use f instead of C, as Mxc* 
bit, credit ; some Substitute f for pb, as gilofof, philosopher ; 
some write j for t, as -fta^tOtt, nation ; some write f$ instead 
of $, as D^ofÖ, horse, for D^oß, etc. etc. Usage varies as to 
the letters ti) in many words ; e. g. some write bietbett, to of- 
fer, others bieten ; some SBotfye, messenger, others 33ote* 

SYLLABLES. 

§ 30. Obs. I. ' It is a principle of the German language 
that words are divided at the end of a line according to their 
pronunciation ; hence gelben, to go, ^eut^fcfye, German, fte* 
bett, to love. 

§ 31. Obs. II. The hyphen {/) is frequently employed by 
many writers to separate the constituent parts of Compound 
words. E. g. 9}rittat^timbe, private hour, yieüftyott, New 
York, Suffi^Äammer, Chamber of justice, D?eirf)^Q5enera(* 
fäclbttfJlavfäatt, imperial field-marshal-general.* 

* It may be as well to remark here that the German marks 
of punctuation are the same as the English, excepting the hy- 
phen, which is generally written as represented above. 



PART II. 
FORMS OF WORDS 



General Remarks. 
§ 32. The parts of speech in German are the same in num- 
ber as in English. The Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction 
and Interjection are invariable ; the othersare inflected. The 
four invariable parts of speech we shall consider together un- 
der the head of particles ; the others will be treated of sepa- 
rately in the following order :* Article, Noun, Adjective, Pro- 
noun, Verb. 



CHAP. I. 

ARTICLE. 



VARIATION. 

§ 33. There are two Articles in German, corresponding 
with those in our language, viz. the definite, ber, the, and the 
indefinite, ein, a or an. They are declined as follows : 







§34 


. I. £er, 

Singular. 


the. 






Masc. 




Fem. 




Neuter. 


Nom. 


ber, 




bte, 




ba$, the. 


Gen. 


be$, 




ber, 




be3, ofthe. 


Dat. 


bem, 




ber, 




bem, to the. 


Acc. 


ben, 




bte, 




ba$, the. 



Plural, for all the genders. 

Nom. bte, the. - 

Gen. ber, of the. 

Dat. bett, to the. 

Acc. bte, the. 



24 





ARTICLE. 


DETERMINATION 


OF FORM, 






§ 


35. 


II. (Sin, 


a or an. 






Masc. 




Fem. 




Neuter. 




Nom. 


ein, 




eine, 




ein, 


a. 


Gen. 


etne$, 




einer, 




eineö, 


of a, 


Dat. 


einem, 




einer, 




einem, 


to a. 


Acc. 


einen, 




eine, 




ein, 


a. 



DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

§ 36. I. The articles agree, in number, gender, and case, 
with the noun to which they are joined. E. g. eüte£ 9D?amte£, 
of a man, ber %van, of the woman, ben Knaben, the boy 
(Acc. Sing.) or to the boys (Dat. Plur.) 

§ 37. II. When a noun is compounded of two or more nouns 
differing in gender, the article agrees in gender with the last 
of them. E. g. hie £eben3art, the way of life, ber geuer* 
tttanerfefyrer, the chimney-sweeper. 

POSITION. 

§ 38. I. The article immediately precedes the noun, except 
in some cases when the noun is accompanied by qualifying 
words ; e. g. bct£ Qau$, the house, ein Ältabe, a boy. 

§ 39. II. If an adjective or participle, either alone or ac- 
companied by an adverb or other words, precede and qualify 
the noun, the article precedes these qualifying words; e. g. 
ber t)err(icf)e £rinmpl), the splendid triumph, eine gctn$ tter* 
haßte £artte, a thoroughly hated mask. 

§ 40. III. When the qualifying adjective or participle is 
placed after the noun, the article notwithstanding immediate- 
ly precedes the qualifying words ; e. g. ^einrtrf), ber acfyte, 
Henry the VIII. 

§ 41. IV. When the definite article occurs in connecticn 
with the word be^be, both, or the indefinite with the word 
folcfyer, such, the article is placed first ; e. g. bie bet)bcn 25ril* 



ARTICLE. 



25 



ber, both the brothers, literally, the both brothers, ein fc(d)er 
SJ^ann, such a man, literally, a such man* 

Additional Peculiarities. 

§ 42. I. The definite article often appears in a eontracted 
form in connection with certain particles, making with them 

but one word ; e. g. an$ for an baS, aufä for auf ba$, tnö 
for in ba$, am for an bem, Dem for *>on beut, burrfj$ for 
burd) baS, furo for für ba$, etc. 

§ 43. IL Proper names of persons and places do not take 
any article, commonly. Before the names of some countries, 
however, the definite article is employed ; e. g. bte Sfmtjtfc, 
Lusatia, bte Surfet, Turkey, etc. etc. Names of persons, 
too, sometimes take the definite article to distinguish cases of 
the same form ; e. g. bert G&ftt 23nttit3 tfötctc, Brutus kill- 
ed Caesar. They take it, too, sometimes, before adjectives 
which qualify them ; e. g. $eht bem Otogen ©Ott bte dtfXC, 
give the great Deity the praise. The definite and indefinite 
articles are used when proper names occur, not in their proper 
sense, but as attributes ; thus bte (Sotttte Ultferer 3 C ^/ tne 
Catos of our time, ber 2((cranber s Ji0rben3, the Alexander of 
the north, er i(l eilt (&0?VCltC$, he is a Socrates. The defi- 
nite article is employed when a proper name is used for athing ; 
e. g. irf) fefe bett Cicero, I read Cicero, i. e. Cicero's works. 
Also sometimes when proper names are mentioned with con- 
tempt ; e. g. ber JKattattktC, Ravaillac. 

§ 44. III. The definite article is omitted when only a part 
of what the noun signifies is comprehended by the expression ; 
e. g. 23rob efifett, to eat bread, 53üd)er ftutfen, to buy books. 

§ 45. IV. When many nouns occur in succession, the arti- 
cle is often entirely omitted for the sake of brevity ; e. g. 

* In the huter case the idiom of the French language is pre- 
cisely the same. Thus, un tel komme, such a man, or, literally, 
a such man. 

3 



-^ ARTICLE. 



®ered)te mtb Ungerechte, SÖfenfrfjen anb {totere fanben tit 
bat SQBeffen tyr <5>ra&, the good and the bad, men and beasts 
found their grave in the waves. 

§ 46. V. When several nouns oeeur together whose gen- 
der is the same, the article is often used before the first only ; 
e. g. bte gmmbfrfjaft UUb Siebe, friendship and leve. 

§ 47. VI. When a noun in the genitive preeedes another 
which governs it, commonly but one takes the article ; e. g. 
be$ 2e6en$ ^reube, thejoyof life, %otU bte «Menge, the mul- 
titude of people. 

§ 48. VII. It is frequently omitted before the titles of well- 
known persons ; e. g. Qot tot £utf)er, Dr. Luther, £err WluU 
(er, etc. ' So also before titles of books or parts of books ; e. g. 
$n)ct)ter £f)ei(, second part, £entfd)e (gpradjlefyre, German 
grammar, üßorrebe, preface, etc. 

§ 49. VIII. The article is often omitted in proverbial or in 
very familiär expressions ; e. g. je ärger @d)etm, je beffer 
(SHücf, the worse rogue, the better luck, 9i0tf) lernt heten, 
distress teaches one to pray, Ue6erbringer btefeg, the bearer 
of this, ixt §äitben, in the hands, fcor Sfacjen, before the 
eyes, etc. 

§ 50. IX. The law-language of the Germans often rejeets 
the definite article in other cases where we might think it 
would be employed ; e. g. Kläger, the plaintifF, ^Befragter, 
the defendant, 3nl)Ctber, proprietor, ^(ppettant, appellant, 
©nppftcant, petitioner, etc.* 

* This usage is not uncommon, in regard to many words, in 
our own courts of justice. Thus " complainant alleges," in- 
stead of " the complainant," etc. etc. 



NOUN. GENDER. 27 

CHAP. II. 

' NOUN. 

VARIATION. 

General Statement. 

§ 51. Nouns in German are of the Masculine, Feminine, 
or Neuter Gender. There are two Numbers, Singular and 
Plural ; and four Cases, Nominative, Genitive, Dative, and Ac- 
cusative. The place of the Latin Vocative and Ablative m 
supplied by the Nominative and Dative. Proper nouns are 
declined differently from Common nouns. Common nouns of 
foreign origin are often declined differently from true German 
nouns. 

GEJYDER OF GERMAN JVOUJYS. 

§ 52. The Gender of German nouns cannot be reduced to 
invariable rules. All that can be said with well-founded confi- 
dence is, that names of males are generally masculine ; those 
of females generally feminine ; and all diminutive nouns, as 
also all infinitives used as nouns, neuter. Even to these prin- 
ciples there are a few exceptions, as ba$ %Qeib, ba$ 9D?ertfcfy. 
As to other nouns, the gender of each must be learned sepa- 
rately. Most of the common rules on this subject are worse 
than useless, for they are so indefinite and so often prove in- 
accurate, that no reliance can be placed on them. The learn- 
er finds it as necessary to have recourse to some other assu- 
rance of the actual gender of a noun as though these rules 
had never been devised. The gender of some words is un- 
certain, different writers varying in usage. Some nouns have 
different genders according to their different significations.* 



For ihese see Appendix A, 



^ö DECLENSION OF COMMON NOUNS. 

DECLENSION OF GERMAJY JYOUJYS. 
A. COMMON NOUNS. 

I. TRUE GERMAN WORDS. 

Classification. 

§ 53. The variations of common nouns in German may, I 
think, be best classified under three Declensions, characteri- 
zed by the termination of the Genitive case singular. The 
first declension comprises all common nouns whose genitive 
singular is the same as the nominative ; the second those whose 
genitive singular terminates with an additional tt ; and the 
third those whose genitive singular terminates with an addi- 
tional $♦ All feminine nouns belong to the first declension ; 
all masculine nouns to the second or third ; and all neuter 
nouns to the third. Hence, nouns of the first declension are all 
feminine, nouns of the second all masculine, and nouns of the 
third either masculine or neuter. 

First Declension. 
§ 54. Nouns of this declension may be divided into three 
classes, with reference to the form of their nominative plural. 
The first class consists of those in which the nominative plu- 
ral is formed by adding e to the nominative singular ; the se- 
cond of those in which it is formed by adding tt ; and the 
third of those in which ett is added.* To which of these 
classes any noun of the first declension belongs, cannot be 
determined by any invariable rules. The following princi- 

* There are two nouns of this declension which do not fall 
under either of these classes, viz. Butter and £orf)ter* The 
ending of the nominative plural of these nouns is the same as 
that of the nominative singular. The singular and plural are dis- 
tinguished only by the change of the vowels U and into Ü and 
6, the plural being Mütter and %öd)tev. It should be obser- 
ved that the change of a, 0, or U in the singular for ä, Ö r or 
U in the plural is very common in all the declensions. No 
rule can be laid down respecting it. 



DECLENSION OP COMMON NOUNS. 29 

ples are generally valid. ( 1 ) The fast class consists of nouns 
which end in niß, % or % (2) Nouns of this declension 
which end in e, d, or r belong to the second class. (3) Nouns 
of this declension which terminate otherwise belong to the 
third class. 

§ 55. Example ofthefirst Class. 
bte 25egegntß, the occurrence. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. bte 23egcgntß Nom. bte ^egegntfie 

Gen. ber SSegegntß Gen. ber SSegcgmffc 

Dat. ber SBegegmß Dat. ben SSegegntfien 

Acc. bte 23egegntß Acc. bte SBegcgntfle 

§ 56. Example of the second Class. 

bte @hrc, honor. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. bte d\)xc Nom. bte öftren 

Gen. ber @tyre Gen. ber (£bren 

Dat. ber Grfyre Dat. ben öftren 

Acc. bte (Styre Acc. bte (Streit 

§ 57. Example ofthe ihird Class.*' 
bte ®egenb, the country* 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. bte ®egenb Nom. bte ®egenben 

Gen. ber ©egcnb Gern ber @egenben 

Dat. ber ©egenb Dat. ben ($egenben 

Acc. bte ©egettb Acc. bte (Segenben 

Second Declension. 
§ 58. This declension comprehends, as we have said, all 
nouns whose genitive singular terminates with an n additional 

* Nouns of this class ending originally in double n are now 
by some speit with but one final n, as, (^rbtn, for dthitlXt* To 
be consistent, these persons should write but one n in the plural 

also, as, (£rbüten* 

3* 



w DECLENSION OF COMMON NOUNS. 

to the nominative. All nouns of this declension, except thos«- 
which end in e, add en to form the genitive ; those which end 
in e add only n. 

§ 59. Example of thefirst Class. 
ber ^eft), the hero. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber Qelb Nom. bte Reiben 

Gen. be$ £e(ben Gen. bcr gelben 

Dat. bemiMben Dat. ben Reiben 

Acc. ben gelben Acc. bte gelben 

§ 60. Example of the second Class. 

ber $>a\e, the hare. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber £afe Nom. bte £afett 

Gen. be£ £afcn Gen. ber J^afen 

Dat. bem^afen Dat. ben£afen 

Acc. ben £afen Acc. bte £afen 

Third Declension. 

§ 61. This declension, we have said, comprises all nouns 
whose genitive terminates with an 3 additional to the nomina- 
tive. These may be divided into two classes ; those which 
add 3 only to the nominative in order to form the genitive, 
and those which add e£* # All nouns of one syllable which 
belong to this declension add eö to the nominative in order to 
form the genitive ; so also do all nouns ending in $ or $. 
Nouns ending in ef, en, er and (ettt add only $♦ The nom- 

# All nouns of this declension which now end in e, but 
originally ended in ett, exhibit, in every case but the nomina- 
tive singular, the same forms as if they were now written with 
final \\. The only noun of this declension which cannot be 
ranked in either of the classes mentioned above, is jper$, heart. 

Sing. Gen. #er$en$, Dat. £er$ett, Acc §er$,— PI. §erjen> 

throughout. 



DECLENSION OF COMMON NOUNS. 31 

inative plural of nouns of this declension cannot be reduced 
to rule. Almost all nouns of the first class, viz. those which 
add 3 only to form the genitive singular, exhibit the same 
form in the nominative plural as in the nominative singular. 
The others add e, tt, ett, or er to the nominative singular to 
form the nominative plural. E. g. ba$ $)ferb, the horse, bte 
spferbe, the horses, ber Setter, the cousin, bte Settern, the 
cousins, ba$ £>fyr, the ear, bte £)f)reit, the ears, ba$ £>orf, 
the village, bte Dörfer, the villages. 

§ 62. Example ofthefirsl Class. 
ba$ Keffer, the knife. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. baö Keffer Nom. bte Keffer 

Gen. beg 3D2effer£ Gen. ber Keffer 

Dat. bem Keffer Dat. ben ^effern 

Acc. ba£ ?D?efifer Acc. bte Keffer 

§ 63. Example of the second Class. 

ber ^)fab, the path. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. ber ^)fab Nom. bte ^)fabe 

Gen. be$ ^pfdbeö Gen. ber ^}fabc 

Dat. bem «pfabe Dat. ben ^)faben 

Acc. tm ^)fab Acc. bte ^fabe 

Observations on the Numbers and Cases of Nouns. 

§ 64. Obs. I. Some nouns have no singular ; as bte 23ettt* 
ftetber, breeches, bte 2eute, people, bte Gruppen, troops, 
etc. Others have no plural ; as ba$ (Geblüt, the blood, bctö 
@o!b, gold, bte gltrcrjt, fear, baö ($IM, fortune, etc. Others 
still have two plural forms, each of which, in general, has a 
difFerent signification ; e. g. bte £anbe, bte £ättber, plural 
forms of ba£ ?attb, the land.* 

* See a considerable list of such nouns in Appendix B. 



32 DECLENSION OF COMMON NOUNS. 

§ 65. Obs. IL Some nouns are entirely indeclinable ; oth- 
ers are defective, certain cases only being employed.* 

§ 66. Obs. III. From the representation which we have 
given of the forms of nouns the following principles are de- 
ducible. (1) In the first declension all the cases of the Sin- 
gular number are alike. (2) In the second declension the 
genitive, dative, and accusative singular are alike. (3) In 
the third declension the nominative and accusative singular 
are alike ;t and the dative is the same as the genitive, except- 
ing that the genitive termination 3, characteristic of the de- 
clension, is dropped in the dative. (4) The termination of 
the nominative plural in the second declension is the same as 
that of the genitive singular ; in the other declensions the form 
of the nominative plural is not subject to any general rule. 
(5) The termination of the other cases of the plural is, in all 
the declensions, the same as that of the nominative ; except 
that the' dative plural invariably terminates with n, that letter 
being added when the other cases of the plural do not already 
terminate with it. 

§ 67. Obs. IV. It appears, therefore, that in order to de- 
cline any German noun it is only necessary to know its nom- 
inative plural, if it be of the first declension ; its genitive sin- 
gular, if it be of the second ; or its genitive singular and nom- 
inative plural, if it b£ of the third. 

II. FOREIGN WORDS. 

NOUNS DERIVED FROM THE FRENCH. 

§ 68. There are two different modes of declining these. 
If they are so far domesticated as to be pronounced like Ger- 
man words, they are also declined like them, according to one 

* See a list of some of these nouns in Appendix C. 

f There is an apparent exception to this principle in the 
nouns mentioned on p. 30, note, whose accusative ends in It 
although the nominative now ends in e* Originally, however, 
as there stated, their nominative, likewise, ended in lt. 



DECLENSION OF PROPER NOUNS. 33 

of the modes of declension which we have exhibited ; e. g. 
ber Girebtt, betf (SrebttÖ, etc. through the Singular, there being 

noplural ; ber SBanferott, be3 fQanfevettcö, plural bte 25mtfe* 

rotte» If, however, they retain their French pronunciation, 
they take £ in the genitive singular and also in the nomina- 

tive plural ; e. g. ber Salcon, bed SSalcon^, plural, bte 2ßaU 

COUÖ, and so throughout. Feminine nouns, however, ending 
in e, which come from the French, always take an Jt in the 
plural, whether pronounced in the French or ßerman man- 
ner ; e. g. Apanage, Epanagen» 

Nouns derived from other Eanguages. 

§ 69. Nouns introduced from the Greek, Latin, or other 
languages are some of them declined as in the original lan- 

guage, as ba$ Ebtterbütm, be£ Ebtterbtt, bent EbDerbto, bte 
Slböerbta, etc. ; some are not altered at all, except in the plu- 
ral, and this takes the form of the original language, as ba$ 

SBerbnm, be$ ^eronm, ^m $cr6nm, bte $erfca ; and others, 
i. e. such as have most the appearance of German words, are 
declined in some one of the regulär German modes which 
have been exhibited, as e. g. ber 2(ntor, be£ Elttorö, plural, 
bte Tutoren, ber SaKttfcfyar, be$ 3anttfcf)aren, plural, bte 
Sam'tfcfyaren. 

B. PROPER NOUNS. 

First mode of declension. 
§ 70. All Proper nouns in German may be declined with 
the definite or indefinite article ; and in either of these cases 
the noun itself is not inflected ; 

Example. Example. 

ber 2Mf ein ßteero 

be$ SÖMf, etc. eiltet Cicero, etc. 

§71. This mode of declining proper names of persons is 
not considered the most respectful, It is commonly em- 



ö4 DECLENSION OF PROPER NOUNS. 

ployed when an idca of familiarity or contempt is to be con- 
veyed. 

Second mode of Declension. 

§ 72. Many Latin proper names may be declined accord- 

ing to the Latin mode, without the article. Thus bte (Geburt 

(grifft, the birth of Christ, ^bdbri gabeht, Fables of Phse- 

drus, etc. Many of these nouns may also be inflected other- 

wise. 

I 

Third mode of Declension. 

§ 73. Most proper nouns may be inflected in a manner pe- 
culiar to the German language. There are four different 
classes of German inflections. 

§ 74. The first is as follows : Sffiolf, SEBolfS, Uöolfen, 

SBotfen, plural bte SBolfe, ber üßolfe, ben 2Botfen, bte 
SBolfe* This class is common with all proper names of per- 
sons but those hereafter excepted. 

§ 75. The second class of inflections is as follows : ^utfyer, 
£utfyer3, gutljern, Sutfyew, plural bte 2utber, ber ?utfyer, 
ben Sittfyew, bte 2utt)er* This class is common with nouns 
ending in z\, oX f \\ f ar, er and or* 

§ 76. The third class is as follows : £etbttt£, -en$, -eit, 
— eit/ bte -t£e, ber -i£e, ben -t^cn, bte -tfce* This class is 

common with nouns ending in $, ftf), $, a and e» 

§ 77. The fourth class is as follows : 2ftbctt, SJt^enÖ, -tf)Ctt, 
-rfyen, bte 3ltl)ene, ber -ene, ben -enett, bte -ene* This 
class is common with all names of cities and countries not end- 
ing in $, fd), or l ; with names of persons ending in a, 0, t, tt, 
eit, and rf)en ; and with many which could not be inflected ac- 
cording to either of the former classes without a violation of 
euphony. 

Additional Observations. 
§ 78. I. All proper names of nations, rivers, and moun- 
tains require the article and an inflection of the noun likewise, 



NOUN. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 35 

combining the first and third modes of declension exhibited 
above. Thus ber gitß be$ ^ar^, the foot of the Harz 
mountains. 

§ 79. IL Some nouns cannot be declined according to either 
of the modes which we have exhibited, not being susceptible 
of inflection themselves, nor receiving the article. Such are, 
especially, those names of cities which terminate in $ or $♦ 
The word &tabt, city, or other suitable common noun is gen- 
erally prefixed to these proper names. Thus, nominative bie 

(grabt ^artö, genitive ber (grabt ^artö, etc. 

§ 80. III. When the genitive termination 3 in names of 
persons is immediately preceded by a vowel, an apostrophe is 
usually inserted between the vowel and the $. Thus, £)tbo'£, 
Qotta'Ö, etc., as in English. 

§ 81. IV. The plural forms of proper nouns always have 
the article. (Compare § 74. seq.) 

DETEBMINATION OF FORM. 
NUMBER AND CASE OF NOUNS. 

§ 82. The principles respecting the use of the singular and 
plural numbers are the'same as in English. We will consid- 
er the use of the cases each by itself. 

NOMINATIVE. 

§ 83. I. This case is put before or after a verb, as in other 
languages ; e. g. ber 2>arer ruft, the father calls, id) hin ber 
SytV, I am the master. 

§ 84. IL The nominative is used in apposition with other 
nouns in the nominative ; e. g. bte ?tebe, ba$ füffefte ®lucf 
be3 £efcett*? r love, the sweetest happiness of life, bte (grabt 
?onboit, the city London. 

§ 85. III. The nominative is often used in German when a 
noun is immediately preceded by another denoting number, 
measure, weight, or part ; although we should expect the gen- 



36 NOUN. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

itive. E. g. ein gnber $)oi$, a load of wood, eine 9D?enge 

$ögel, a multitude of birds, eilt S3ltd) Rapier, a quire of pa- 
per. But if any word intervenes between the two nouns, the 
genitive is used ; as ein ®fo3 fltfleit $Öcine3, a glass of sweet 
wine. 

§ 86. IV. The nominative is often used after a(3 or rwe 
with a verb and nominative preceding ; e. g. (£$ tjt fo gnt al$ 
®ofb, it is as good as gold, er hantelt wie ein recfytfcfyaff ener 
9D?amt, he conduets like an honest man. 

§ 87. V. The nominative is sometimes used absolutely, 
corresponding with the vocative in other languages ; e. g. 
t>ie SSü'tthe ber ©efnnbbeit ! wie halb öerroeift jTe in Straf U 
(ofigfeit nnb fövanf tyeit ! the bloom of health ! how soon it 
fades away in weakness and disease ! 

GENITIVE. 

§ 88. I. A noun in the genitive is often used in apposition 
with another genitive ; e. g. ber Sucjenb, be3 grnMingeä be$ 
?ebcn$, of youth, the Spring of life. 

§ 89. IL A noun qualifying another is generally put in the 
genitive case ; e. g. ba$ %eU eineß ©cfyafeö, the skin of a 
sheep, ba£ 05eränfd) ber Sföeller, the noise of the waves. 
(For an exception, see § 85. III.) 

§ 90. III. Many adjeetives require that nouns which they 
govern should be in the genitive ease ; e. g. mein $>ev% i\t ber 
gmtbe fähig, my heart is susceptible of joy, ber £utlfe 6e* 
bürftig, needing help. In almost all these instances of an 
adjeetive with the genitive, the relation conveyed by the pre- 
position of exists between the adjeetive and noun.* 

§ 91. III. Many verbs frequently require that nouns which 
they govern should be in the genitive case. Here, too, the 
relation conveyed by the preposition of generally exists. E. g. 
einen tylann be3 Qiebftatyeö auflagen, to aecuse a man of 
theft. In such instances the verb often governs two nouns, 

* See a considerable list of these adjeetives in Appendix D. 



NOUN. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 37 

one denoting a person, the other a thing. The thing is put in 
the genitive. (See a list of these verbs, Appendix E.) 

§ 92. V. Certain prepositions require the genitive case of 
the nouns which they govern. (See a list of them, Appen- 
dix F.) 

§ 93. VI. The genitive case is often used absolutely in Ger- 
man without any word to govern it. E. g. be3 ?ü)?ergen$, in 
the morning, cttleö (£rnfte3, in all seriousness.* (See a col- 
lection of these expressions, Appendix G.) 

DATIVE. 

§ 94. I. A noun is often used in the dative in apposition 
vvith another in the same case ; e. g. ber Sugenb, bem %tffl}* 
[Ütge beö %eben$, to youth, the spring-time of life. 

§ 95. II. Many adjectives require nouns which they govern 
to be in the dative case. The relation conveyed by the pre- 
position to is generally involved in these instances. E. g. Q?r 
ift mir febr äbnficr), he is very like me, or to me, er tft getreu 
feinen ^fltcf)ten, he is true to his duties. Some adjectives, 
which in one sense require the genitive, in another require the 
dative ; e. g. er ift fcmttbto, eiltet $erbrcrf)enö, he is guilty of 
a crime, but er tft mir fcfiufbtg;, he is indebted to me. (See a 
list of adjectives governing the dative, Appendix H.) 

§ 96. III. Certain verbs often govern the dative, the sense 
of the prepositions to orfor being generally implied. Active 
verbs governing the dative usually govern an accusative like- 
wise at the same time ; e. g. er $ab bem ^ferbe bte (Spornen, 
he put spurs to his horse, trfj habe mir ba$ 33 ein fcerrenft, I 
have broken my leg, iiterally the leg for me, btr fcfyehtet bte 
(Sonne, the sun shines for thee. Neuter verbs govern the 
dative alone ; e. g. jebe (Stunbe fcfcemt ihm traurig, every 
hour seems sad to him. Many reciprocal verbs govern the 

* This phraseology corresponds with the Greek genitive ab- 
solute, and the Latin ablative absolute; vvniog, by night, tijg 
t)fiigttg } daily, horä ttrtiä, at 9 o'clock. 
4 



38 NOUN. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

dative of a person ; e. g. ba$ famt id) mir nid/t i)0r|M(eit, 
that I cannot conceive. (See Appendix I for lists of these 
verbs.) 

§ 97. IV. Certain prepositions govern the dative. In par- 
ticular, the dative is often used with öott instead of the geni- 
itive ; e. g. ber ©arten öon meinem greunbe r ber ©arten 
meinet §reunbe$, the garden of my friend. (See a catalogue 
of prepositions governing the dative, Appendix J.) 

ACCUSATIVE. 

§ 98. I. The Accusative is used in apposition with another 
accusative ; e. g. (glaubet \\\\$ f euren greitnben, believe us, 
your friends, i. e. us, who are your friends. 

§ 99. IL Adjectives and verbs whichdenotevalue,measure, 
weight, or age, require the accusative of nouns which they 
govern; e. g. $tt>an$tg £l)a(er U)ertf), worth twenty dollars, 
fünf gltß f)0d), five feet high, gmöff 3at)r fang, for twelve 
years, ba$ @ut foftet ein taufenb Ztyakv, the estate costs a 
thousand dollars. 

§ 100. III. Active verbs govern the accusative case, and so 
also neuter verbs which are used actively. E. g. er loht beit 
50ein, he praises the wine, id) fefye einen SSoget, Isee a bird. 

§ 101. IV. The verbs Reißen, to call, nennen, toname,ru* 
fen, (in the same sense,) fcrjeftett, to revile, fcfyitttpfen, (in the 
same sense,) frequently govern two accusatives ; e. g. er fyeiß t 

mirf) feinen greunb, he calls me his friend, jemanben einen 

@d)elm fcfyelten, to call one a rogue. £ef)ren, likewise, some- 
times governs two accusatives, one of a person and the other 
of a thing ; e. g. er tebrt mirf) (better mir) ber ^eutfdbe 
(Sprache, he is teaching me the German language. 

§ 102. V. After the verb faflen the accusative is employ- 
ed, if the verb relates directly to the noun or pronoun in ques» 
tion, as (aß mirf) fagcn, let me say ; but, otherwise, the dativo 
is employed, as (aß mir fagen, etc., let some one say to me. 
Thus in all similar cases. 



NOUN. POSITION. 39 

§ 103. VI. The accusative is often employcd absolutely 
with a participle, e. g. tiefen Umffattb ttoran^gefcfjt, this cir- 
cumstance being taken for granted. 

§ 104. VII. The accusative is employed absolutely in ex- 
pressions denoting dates, length of time, or distance of space ; 

e. g. ben vierten Wlavz, the fourth of March, ben ganzen £ag 
hin irf) gereifet, I have travelled the whole day, einen langen 
Sßßeg reifen, to travel a long way. 

§ 105. VIII. Poets often use the accusative absolute instead 
of the dative with a preposition ; e. g. bie £et)er in ber ipcillt», 
the lyre in hand, for mit ber £et)er etc. 

POSITION. 
NOMINATIVE. 

§ 106. I. The nominative commonly precedes the verb ; 
e. g. ber Sinahe fagt, the boy says. 

§ 107. II. The nominative often occurs after the verb and 
words on which emphasis is meant to be put take the usual 
place of the nominative before the verb ; e. g. arbeiten iflfc 
meine grenbe, to labor is my delight, gejlern lebte er noch, 
he was alive yesterday, bir grünet ba$ %l)ai, for thee the vale 
wears its green hue, bem £örf)jren mußt bn tränen, you müst 
trust in the Highest. 

§ 108. III. If a circumstance, which should naturally come 
after the verb, precedes it, the nominative occurs after the 
verb, even though the circumstance possesses no particular 
emphasis ; e. g. roeinenb jtanben fte ba f weepiög stood they 
there, or, they stood there weeping, halb fommt ber gritf^ 
ring, soon spring comes. 

§ 109. IV. The nominative comes after the verb in an in- 
terrogation ; e. g. roerbe irf) genießen biefe3 Vergnügen ? 
shall I enjoy this pleasure ? roeßrwgen iad)t ber yjlatm ? 

why does the man laugh ? So also in some exclamations, 
e. g. roie g(ncftirf) bin kfy how happy am I ! 



40 NOUN. POSITION. 

§ 110. V. When the words of another are repeated, the 
nominative comes after the verb fagen or other verb used to 
denote the citation ; e. g. ftefye, fagt bie Butter, eö ftnb ihrer 
ffeben, see, says the mother, there are seven of them, n?0 ftnb 
meine Söhne, fragte er ? where are my sons, he asked ? 

§ 111. VI. Several particles, when they precede the verb, 
cause the nominative to follow the verb ; e. g. affo rcbeten 
jte, thus they spoke. (See a list of these particles in Ap- 
pendix K.) 

§ 112. VII. In the complementary part of a sentence the 
nominative occurs after the verb. E. g. b(l er anfftonb, bct 
frf)Iltg e£ jTehen, when he rose, the clock Struck seven, tveii 
er tngenbbaft ijr, (ie6e id) ü)tt, because he is virtuous I love 
him.* 

§ 113. VIII. With the subjunctive mode the nominative of- 
ten occurs after the verb. E. g. tyätte er bte (Scfyfacfyt ge* 
Wonnen, had he gained the battle, fei) ber 9D?enfdh fing, ttXt$ 
I)ttft'Ö ? suppose the man is cunning, of what use is it ? 

§ 1 14. IX. When the nominative to a verb, its direct object, 
and the case of a person occur together, either before or after 
the verb, it is usually the fact that the nominative ranks first, 
then the case of the person, then the object. E. g. ba er bem 
trafen ba$ £obegnrthei( gezeigt bat, since he has shown the 
Count the sentence of death ; fo ga6 irf) bem Mnahcn feine 

grei)i)eit, thus I gave the boy his liberty» 

GENITIVE. 
§ 115. I. The Genitive usually Stands after a noun or a 
preposition which governs it ; e. g. bie £tcf)tcr be$ &immei$, 
the lights of heaven, tttttterft be3 2Sater$, by means of the fa- 
ther. 

# By complementary part is meant what is called by some 
writers the apodosis of a sentence, the preceding part being the 
protasis. In all such cases there are two complete propositions 
connected together by some conjunctive word, as, in the ex- 
pressions given above, by the words bd and Weit* 



NOUN. POSITION. 



41 



§ 116. II. It usually Stands before adjectives and verbs 
which govern it; e. g. td) bin be$ Z^tt WÜrbig, I am wör- 
thy of death, jemanben feinet £anfe$ unb feinet ©etbe$ be* 
rauben, to rob one of his house and money. 

§ 117. IE. It always Stands before the prepositions halben 
and hattet which govern it ; e. g. ©enriffcnS halber, for con- 
science' sake. It Stands sometimes before and sometimes al- 
ter the prepositions ungeachtet and wegen ; e. g. fetneä gleiße* 

ungeachtet, notwithstanding his industry, or ungeachtet fetUCif 
gleißet, (the former is most usual,) meiner £ed)ter wegen, 
for my daughter's sake, or wegen metner X&fyttV. 

§ 118. IV. For the sake of emphasis, or for other reasons, 
the preceding rules are sometimes violated. E. g. be$ Äütbcö 

Hoffnung tft ber Jüngling, be£ Sftngtingö ber üttann, the 

chiWs hope is youth, and youtiCs hope is manhood ; ja, tef) 
bebarf 3hrer greuubfebaft, yes, I med your friendship. 

§ 119. V. When a verb governs the aecusative of a person 
and the genitive of a thing, the aecusative usually takes pre- 
cedence of the genitive ; e. g. man hat ihn be3 $crbrcd>cutf 
angesagt, they have aecused him of the crime. 

DATIVE. 
§ 120. I. The dative usually oecurs before adjectives which 
govern it; e. g. er ifl einem ®efpenfte fet)r äbn(id), he is very 

like a ghost. 

§ 121. II. The dative commonly Stands after verbs or pre- 
positions which govern it ; e. g. er fcfyrcibt feiner (sdnrjcftcr, 
he is writing to his sister, r)0tt bem Zeitig, from the king. 

§ 122. III. Emphasis often causes a violation of rule I. : 
e. g. feiner ©cbmefrer febreibt er, he is writing to his »ister. 
The rule is violated also, of course, in cases when the verb 
must stand at the end of the whole clause or sentence. These 
cases will be noticed in the chapter on the verb. 

§ 123. IV. The dative always oecurs before the preposi- 
tions entgegen, $ufolge, and jmmber ; e. g. ber grcunbfcfjaft 
4* 



42 NOÜN. POSITION. 

entgegen or $mtriber, contrary to friendship, Syrern 53efef)( 

infolge, according to your command. It occurs sometimes 
before and sometimes after the prepositions gegenüber, and 
nacfy ; e. g. bem 3(nfeben nad), according to appearance, or 
nacfy bem 2infebem 

§ 12£. V. When a verb governs the dative of a person and 
the accusative of a thing, the dative usually takes precedence 
of the accusative ; e. g. ber ©obn mctcfyt feinem Sater 
grenbc, the son gives his father pleasure. If, however, the 
accusative be preceded by a possessive pronoun, it is placed 
before the dative ; e. g. er I)at fein Qan$ einem grennbe »er? 
f CUtft, he has sold his house to a friend. 

ACCUSATIVE. 

§ 125. I. The Accusative case Stands before adjectives 
which govern it ; e. g. eilte fycttbe ^Jlcile fang, half a mile long. 

§ 126. II. It usually Stands after prepositions which govern 
it ; e. g. ofyne (Mb, without money, für einen ^cfyerä, for a 
jest. With bnrrf), however, it may be placed before or after ; 

e. g. ben ganzen £ag bnrtf), through the whole day, bnrcfy 

baö ©tf)to$, through the Castle. 

§ 127. III. It commonly Stands after verbs which govern it ; 
e. g. er bort ben 5ittfrnl)r, he hears the uproar. When the 
verb is necessarily removed to the end of a clause (the cases 
will be mentioned in the chapter on the verb,) this rule, of 
course, doesnot hold ; e. g. fo batb er bie £ente gefehlt tyatte, 
when he had seen the people. 

§ 128. IV. When a verb governs two accusatives, the one 
of a person and the other of a thing r the accusative of a per- 
son takes precedence ; e. g. nennen einen Knaben ©dhefat, 
to call a boy a rogue. 



ADJECTIVE. 43 

CHAP. III. 

ADJECTIVE. 

VARIATION. 

General Statement. 
§ 129. Adjectives in German are varied in two general 
ways, viz., by comparison and by declension. These varia- 
tions are both made by the addition of one or more letters to 
the original simple form. It is true, comparison is sometimes 
expressed, as in English, by prefixing different words to the 
adjective, e. g. mefyr or mütber fcfyött, more or less beautiful ; 
but this mode of comparison does not come under the head of 
the Variation of adjectives. 

COMPARISON. 

§ 130. I. There are in German, as in English, three de- 
grees of comparison, the Positive, Comparative, and Superla- 
tive. All adjectives may be compared whose sense will per- 
mit comparison. 

§ 131. IL The regulär Variation of adjectives in comparison 
is effected by adding r or er to the simple form for the com- 
parative degree, and jt or cjt for the Superlative ;* e. g. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

©anfr, soft, fattfter, softer, fanfteft, softest. 

2Öertfy, dear, tt)ertber, dearer, tt>ertfyejt, dearest. 

SOöetfe, wise, tt>etfer, wiser, ttetfejr, wisest. 

$)otb, kind, fyoföer, kinder, ^olbeft, kindest. 

§ 132. III. When adjectives end in e(, ett, or er, the e in 
these syllables is frequently dropped for the sake of euphony ; 
e. g. positive bitter, bitter, comparative bittrer, instead of btt> 
terer, eitel, vain, ettter, vainer, instead of eiteter. 

* Only r and jt are added when the adjective terminates in 
e ; but in all other cases er and ejt» 



44 COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

§ 133. IV. In the Superlative degree the e of the last syl- 
lable of the comparative is frequently dropped, for the same 
reason ; e. g. bttf, thick, bitfer, btcfjt, and ergeben, devoted, 
ergebener, ergebenfh So in all adjectives ending in tg, lief), 
bar, farf), \am, em, en, and r. 

§ 134. V. Very many adjectives change a, 0, or n into ä, 
6, or it in the comparative and Superlative ; e. g. groß, great, 
größer, grcßefr, jnng, young, jünger, jüngjL Derivative 

words seldom undergo this change. 

§ 135. VI. Several adjectives exhibit irregulär forms of 
comparison ; e. g. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

@nt, good, bcfler, better, bejt, best. 

§0rf), high, l)5t)er, higher, f)öcr)ft, highest. 

9tabe, nigh, nd!)er, nigher, ndcbjt, nighest. 

$tef, much, mel)r, more, mcijt, most. 

§ 136. VII. Several adjectives exhibit deficiencies in their 
forms of comparison ; e. g. 

Positive. Comparative. Superlative. 

Sfeitfjer, outer, änßerjt, outermost. 

mtnbcr, less, mtnbejr, least. 

Stiner, inner, innerjt, innermost. 

hinter, hinder, Imtterjt, hindermost, 

DECLENSION. 

§ 137. There are three declensions of adjectives in Ger- 
man. It is not the case, however, as in most languages which 
exhibit declensions of adjectives, that the adjectives are dis» 
tributed among the declensions, each having constantly one 
form of Variation ; but every adjeetive in German is suseepti- 
ble of each declension aecording to its connexion. 

FIRST DECLENSION. 
§ 138. When an adjeetive is not preceded by another de- 
clinable word agreeing with the same noun, it is declined by 
adding the foliowing terminations to its simple form : 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 



45 



s 


Jingular. 




Plural. 


Masc. 


Fem. 


jYeut. 


AU Genders. 


Nom. er, 


*, 


&, 


c, 


Gen. e$, en 


, er, 


e$, ett, 


er, 


Dat. em, 


er, 


' em, 


ett, 


Acc. ett, 


e, 


e$, 


e* 



§ 139. Examples of the adjective gut prefixed to nouns of 
the masculine, feminine, and neuter genders : (1) guter $Öeitt, 
good wine ; (2) gute 3ett, good time ; (3) guteä 23rob, good 
bread : 



Singular. 

Masculine. 

Nom. guter 2öeüt, 

Gen. guten or guteS 2ßeine3, 

Dat. gutem teilte, 

Acc. guten SOöetm 



Feminine. 



Nom. 
Gen. 
Dat. 

Acc. 



gute 3ett, 
guter 3ett, 
guter Seit, 
gute &iu 



Plural. 

N.gute 2öeine, 
G. guter $öetne, 
D. guten deinen, 
A. gute $3eine* 

N.gute 3 e ^en, 
G. guter Seiten, 
D. guten Zeiten, 
A.gute Reiten, 

N.gute SSrobe, 
G. guter 23robe, 
D. guten SSroben, 
A. gute 23robe. 



Neuter. 

Nom. guteä 23rob, 

Gen. guten or gute$ 23robe3, 

Dat. gutem S5rcbe, 

Acc. gutetf 93rob. 

§ 140. Exception. If the adjective be in the nominative 
or accusative plural and preceded by either of the following 
words, alk, einige, etliche, mattete, mehrere, fokfye, t)ie(e, 
roefcfye, or wenige, it may drop the U with which it would ter- 
minate aecording to the foregoing representation ; e. g. alle 
gute SSorfä^e, all good resolutions, einige fcfyöne grauen, 
some beautiful ladies.* 



* Some writers propose the principle, that when both of two 
adjeetives oecurring together are inflected aecording to the first 



46 DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 

§ 141. The genitive masculine and neuter ends either in 
e# or en (as represented), according to euphony. Thus, when 
the genitive of the noun ends in 3, the termination en is pre- 
ferable for the adjective, to avoid a second occurrence of the 
termination 6 ; e. g. guten 5Beüte3 is better than guteö 
2Betne3. Again, when an adjective ends in ttt, the termina- 
tion en is preferable ; e. g. öon bequemen $erjtanbniß, of 
convenient knowledge. 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

§ 142. If the adjective be preceded by an article, pronoun, or 
other declinable word which belongs to the same noun and 
which is itself declined according to the form of terminations 
given for the first declension, (e. g. by the definite article ber, 
bte, bd$, or by a demonstrative or relative pronoun,) it is de- 
clined by adding the following terminations to its simple form : 

Plural. 
Aü Gendcrs. 

en, 
en, 
en, 
eu* 

§ 143. Examples of the adjective gut preceded by the de- 
finite article and prefixed tonouns of the masculine, feminine, 
and neuter genders : 

Singular. Plural. 

Masculine. 

Nom. ber gute SEBctn, N. bte guten 2Betne, 

Gen. beö guten $Geüte£, G. ber guten 2öetne, 

Dat. beut guten 5Betne, D. ben guten äöetnen, 

Acc. ben guten 2öeüt. A. bte guten $öeme. 

form of declension, it is for the sake of giving emphasis to the 
second adjective; £. g. Cltfe fcfyöue grauen, all beautiful wo- 
pien, but alle (itönen grauen, all beautiful women, etc, 







Singular. 






Masc. 


Fem. 


Neut, 


Nom, 


e, 


*, 


e, 


Gen. 


en, 


en, 


en, 


Dat. 


en, 


en, 


en, 


Acc. 


en, 


f/ 


e, 



DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES. 



47 



Singular. 

Nom. tue gute Seit, 
Gen. ber guten 3eit, 
Dat. ber guten 3eit, 
Acc. bte gute 3^- 



Feminine. 



Neuter. 



Nom. bctö gute 25rob, 
Gen. be£ guten 23robe3, 
Dat. bem guten 25robe, 
Acc. ba£ gute 23rob. 



Plural. 

N. bte guten Seiten, 
G. ber guten Seiten, 
D. ben guten Seiten, 
A. bie guten 3eüen. 

N. bte guten SSrobe, 
G. ber guten SBrobe, 
D. ben guten Proben, 
A. bte guten 23robe* 



THIRD DECLENSION. 
.. § 144. If the adjective be preceded by a word which agrees 
with the same noun, and which is declinable, but is not de- 
clined according to the form of terminations given for the first 
declension, (e. g. bythe indefinite article ein, eine, Cttt, or by 
a personal or possessive pronoun, or the words feilt, biet, etc.) 
it is declined in the nominative and accusative singular ac- 
cording to the first declension, and in the other cases of the 
singular and all the cases of the plural according to the second 
declension. 

§ 145. Examples of the adjective gut, preceded by the in- 
definite article, and prefixed to nouns of the masculine, fem- 
inine, and neuter genders : 



Masculine. 

Nom. ein guter $Betn r 
Gen. eine$ guten %ßeine$, 
Dat. einem guten $}eine, 
Acc. einen guten ©ein. 

JSeutcr. 



Feminine. 

eine gute 3ett, 
einer guten S?üt 
einer guten 3 e ^/ 
eine gute 3 e ^» 



Nom. ein gutc£ 23rob, 
Gen. einetf guten 35robe3, 
Dat. einem guten 23robe, 
Acc. ein gute$ 25rob* 



48 ADJECTIVE. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

§ 146. When two or more adjectives belong to the same 
noun, if they are not preceded by an article or a pronoun, the 
first is declined according to the flrst form of declension, the 
other or others according to the third. 

§ 147. Example of the adjectives gut, Vütfy, and alt, pre- 
fixed in succession to the masculine noun 2öettt : guter rother 
after ^Bettt, good red old wine : 

Singular. 

Nom. guter rotfyer alter 2ßem, 

Gen. gute$ or guteu rotfyeu alten %Qeine$, 

Dat. gutem rotfycu alten 2Betue, 

Acc. guteu rotfyeu alteu 2Öetu. 

Plural. 

Nom. gute rotheu alten $Beme, 
Gen. guter rotfyeu alten ^öeüte, 
Dat. guteu rotfyeu alten %Qeinen, 
Acc. gute rotfyeu alten $3eme. 

§ 148. So with the other genders; e. g. gute fleiflftge 
SfflaQb (fem.), good industrious maid, guter fleujtgeit Wlaab, 
of a etc., gute3 tyaxteü dtfen (neut.), good hard iron, gute£ 
or guteu hatten ^tfeuö, of good hard iron, etc. 

§ 149. Adverbs, as also most numerals, when preceding an 
adjeetive have no effect upon its form, they being indeclina- 
ble. (See § 138.)* 

§ 150. Adjectives may be employed as nouns ; e. g. Der 
SOBttbe, the savage, bte Traufe, the sick woman, batf Schotte, 
the beautiful. 

DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

§ 151. I. Every adjeetive immediately preceding the noun 
which it qualifies, or separated from it only by another adjee- 
tive likewise belonging to it, must agree with it in gender, 

* In regard to the numerals, see Appendix L. 



ADJECTIVE. POSITION. 49 

number, and case ; e. g. ein füger ©entd), a sweet perfume, 
bem grauen Raupte, to the gray head. 

§ 152. II. Every adjeetive not thus preceding the noun which 
it qualifies must be employed in its simple form ; e. g. gitt ift 
ber 9ttann, the man is good, ber ©erurfj, füg unb [lebfyafr, 

the perfume, sweet and sprightly, ifyre §äupter, grau Itnb 
efyrttmrbtg, their heads, gray and venerable. 

§ 153. III. If a noun is understood after the adjeetive, the ad- 
jeetive is declined as though it were expressed ; e. g. bte greg' 
en Stäbte unb bte Keinen, the great cities and the small 
(i. e. cities). 

§ 154. IV. When two or more adjeetives with the same ter- 
mination oeeur together before the same noun, being connected 
by the conjunetion itnb, and, it is not uncommon to express 
the termination of the last adjeetive only, denoting the Omis- 
sion of a termination by a hyphen ; e. g. ein ffein* itnb 
hü&frf)e3 £orf, a small and pretty village. 

POSITION. 

§ 155. I. When an adjeetive agrees immediately with a 
noun, its most usual place is before the noun ; e. g. ber jtilTe 
5Ibenb, the still evening. 

§ 156. II. If the adjeetive be connected in sense with other 
words, it is frequently the case that it must be put after the 

noun ; e. g. ber 9Qtotb, glängenb in feiner (Scfyönfyeit, the 

moon, splendid in her beauty. 

§ 157. III. The adjeetive with the definite article before it 
often follows a proper noun as a distinetive epithet ; e. g. %{tx* 
auber ber ©rege, Alexander the great. In such cases, how- 
ever, we may consider the adjeetive as a Substantive in appo- 
sition with the proper name. 

§ 158. IV. When a verb connects the noun and adjeetive, 
the adjeetive is usually placed after the noun and the verb ; 
e. g. bei Mnabt ift frerf), the boy is insolent. 
5 



50 PRONOUN. 

§ 159. V. As to the position of adjectives with the cases 
which they govern, it may be determined from the rules which 
we have given respecting the position of the various cases of 
nouns. (See §§ 116, 120, 125.) 

§ 160. VI. The numerals* commonly precede other adjec- 
tives, as also do all adjectives of number, such as alte, all, tU 
(trfje, some, mattete, many, etc. ; e. g. $tt>ei) fyette $öpfe, two 
clear heads, mattdje flfyaflofe Tiarfjt, many a sleepless night. 

§ 161. VII. The word (die sometimes forms an exception to 
w hat we have said, oecurring after the noun with which it 
agrees ; e. g. fcte Urfctrfjett aUe, all the reasons. 



CHAP. IV. 

PRONOUN. 



VARIATION. 

§ 162. There are two general classes of pronouns in Ger- 
nmn, as in English, which may be termed Substantive and ad- 
jeetive. To the class of Substantive pronouns belong what are 
usually called personal, relative, and interrogative pronouns ; 
and to that of adjeetive pronouns what are called possessive, 
demonstrative, and distributive. Of indefinite pronouns some 
are Substantive and some adjeetive. 

PERSONAL PROJYOUJYS. 
§ 163. In German, as in English, there is a peculiar pro- 
noun for each person, and the pronouns of the first and second 
persons are of the same form for every ^ender, that of the 
third alone being varied for the masculine, feminine, and neu- 
ter genders in the singular, while its form is the same for all 
the genders in the plural. 

* In regard to these, see Appendix L. 



PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 51 

§ 164. The pronoun of the ßrst person is declined as fol- 
lows : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. trf), Nom. wir, 

tf'^Gen. meiner or mein, Gen. nnfer, 

Dat. mir, Dat. nn£, 

Acc. mid). Acc. nn$. 

§ 165. The pronoun of the second person is declined as 
follows : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. blt, Nom. tyr, 

Gen. beiner or bein f Gen. euer, 

Dat. bir, Dat. etat, 

Acc. biet)- Acc. eitd), 

§ 166. The pronoun of the third person is declined as fol- 
lows : 

Singular. 
Masc. Fem. Neut. 

Nom. er, ft'e, e$, 

Gen. feiner or fein, ifyrer, feiner or fein, 

Dat. ihm, ftd), ihr, ftrf), ihm, ftrf), 

Acc. i()n, (Td), fie, (Trf), e$, ftrf). 

Plural, for the three Genders. 

Nom. jTe, 
Gen. if)rer, 
Dat. ihnen, (Trf), 
Acc. fie, ftrf). 

RELATIVE PROJYOUjYS. 

§ 167. There are four relative pronouns in Germari, ber, 
tt>e(rf)er, fo, and tt)er, the first two of which have a distinet 
form for each of the three genders, and the last has one for 



52 RELATIVE PR0N0UNS. 

the masculine and feminine, and one for the neuter. @o is 
indeclinable. 

168. ■Der, who, which, or that, is declined as follows : 

Singular. 
Masc. Fem. Neut. 

Nom. ber, bie, ba$, 

• Gen. beß or befielt, ber or bereit, beg or beffen, 

Dat. bem, ber, bent, 

Acc. ben, bte, baö. 

Plural, for the three Genders. 

Nom. bte, 

Gen. berer or berett, 
Dat. betten, 
Acc. bte» 

§ 169. $Mcr)er, who, which, or that, is declined according 
to the first declension of adjectives as follows : 



Masc. 


Fem. 


JYeut. 


Nom. wefcfyer, 


wekfye, 


welcfyeg, 


Gen. mldjeö, 


wekfyer, 


wefcf)e$, etc. 



§ 170. 903er, who, neuter wa$, what, is declined as follows, 
not having any plural : 

Masc. and Fem. JYcut. 

Nom. wer, Nom. tt>a$, 

Gen. weflfert, weg, Gen. wefiett, weg, 

Dat. mm, Dat. wem, 

Acc. wem Acc. wa$. 

INTERROGATIVE PROJVOUNS. 

171. There are but two interrogative pronouns, viz. Wekfyer 

and wer, which are varied exactly as the relative pronoun of 

the same form, excepting that Wa$, the neuter of Wer, has no 

genitive or dative case, the sense of these cases being always 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 53 

expressed by a preposition with the accusative (as tten or gu 
tva$), or in some other manner.* 

POSSESSIVE PRONOUJVS. 

§ 172. The possessive pronouns are of two classes, those 
which precede some noun, and those which are used absolutely. 
Of those which are used absolutely there are two classes, 
those which are not, and those which are, preceded by the ar- 
ticle ber, hie, bct$* 

§ 173. Those possessive pronouns which always precede a 
noun are mein, mine, bein, thine, fein, his or its, it)r, her, 
imfer, our, ener, your, and it)r, their. 

§ 174. These are all declined like the indefinite article eilt 
in the singular and like the definite article in the plural ; e. g. 





Singular. 






Masc. Fem. 


JS'cut. 


Nom. 


mein, meine, 


mein, 


Gen. 


meinet, meiner, 


meinet, 


Dat. 


meinem, meiner, 


meinem, 


Acc. 


meinen, meine, 

Plural, for the thrce Genders 

Nom. meine, 
Gen. meiner, 
Dat. meinen, 


mein. 




Acc. meine. 





* 2Ba$, the neuter of the interrogative pronoun mer, is era- 
ployed in a rather singular manner with the preposition für; 
e. g. 3öag für ein Platin ? What sort of a man ? literally, 
Whatfor a man? A similar usage once existed in the Eng- 
lish language ; e. g. see Shakspeare's Much Ado about Nothing, 
Act I. Scene 3. " What is he for a fool, (i. e. how great a fool 
is he) that betroths himself to unquietness?" Indeed, I have 
myself frequently heard a countryman ask a trader such ques- 
tions as, " What have you for cloth now ?" meaning, What kind 
of cloth have you now ? 

$Ba£ für is used without change in connection with any 
5* 



POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 



§ 175. Those possessive pronouns which are employed ab- 
solutely without a noun, and have no article preceding them, 
are the same as the foregoing, except that they are declined 
precisely according to the first declension of adjectives ; e. g. 





Singular. 






Masc. Fem. 


Mut. 


Nom. 


metner, meine, 


meinet, 


Gen. 


meinet or meinen, metner, 


meinet or meinen, 


Dat. 


meinem, <> meiner, 


meinem, 


Acc. 


meinen, meine, 


meinet 




Plural, for the three Genders. 




Nom. meine, 






Gen. meiner, 






Dat. meinen, 






Acc. meine. 





§ 176. The absolute possessive pronouns preceded by the 
definite article are the following, meinige, beinige, feinige, 
tfyrtge, nnfrtge, eitrige, ifyrige. 

<5> 177. These are varied exactly as the corresponding se- 
cond declension of adjectives, e. g. 



Masc. 

Nom. ber meinige, 
Gen. beä meinigen, 
Dat. bem meinigen, 



Singular. 
Fem. 

bie meinige, 
ber meinigen, 
ber meinigen, 



Xeut. 

ba$ meinige, 
bed meinigen, 
bem meinigen, 



Acc. ben meinigen, bie meinige, ba$ meinige. 

Plural, for the three Genders. 

Nom. bie meinigen, 
Gen. ber meinigen, 
Dat. ben meinigen, 
Acc. bie meinigen. 

case. Thus, $öa$ für einem Sfltonne ? To what sort of a 
man ? $ßa$ für einen 9D?ann ? What sort of a man. (Accus. 
Case.) 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 



55 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 

§ 178. The demonstrative pronouns are ber, this or that, 
biefer, this, jener, that, fe(6iger, the same, berjenige, that, 
berfe(6e, the same.* 

§ 179. £er is declined like the relative pronoun of the 
same form ; i. e. like the definite article, excepting in the gen- 
itive singular and the genitive and dative plural. 

§ 180. £>tefer, jener, and felbiger are declined according 
to the flrst declension of adjectives ; e. g. 





Singular. 




Masc. Fem. Neut. 


Nom 


. biefer, biefe, biefe£, 


Gen. 


biefeä or biefen, biefer, biefeä or biefen, 


Dat. 


biefem, biefer, biefem, 


Acc. 


biefen, biefe, biefem 




Plural, for the three Genders. 




Nom. biefe, 




Gen. biefer, 




Dat. biefen, 




Acc. biefe. 



§ 181. Derjenige and berfe(6e are declined according to 
the second declension of adjectives ; their two component parts, 
however, the definite article and the words jenige and felbe, 
being joined together throughout : e. g. 



Nom, 
Gen. 
Dat. 

Acc. 

*- 


Masc. 

, berjenige, 
beseitigen, 
bemjenigen, 
benjenigen, 


Singular. 
Fem. 

biejenige, 
berjenigen, 
berjenigen, 
biejenige, 


Neut. 

ba^jenige, 
berjenigen, 
bemjenigen, 
beseitige* 



* These pronouns are often used without any noun express- 
ed, belonging to one understood j e. g. biefer tydt e$ getfyan, 
this (man) has done it. 



56 INDEFINITE PRONOUNS. 

Plural, for the three Genders. 

Nom. btejemgen, 
Gen. berjenigcn, 
Dat. benjenigen, 
Acc. btejemgen. 

DISTRIBUTIVE PROXOUJYS. 
§ 182. The distributive pronouns are jeber, jebmeber, and 
jeglicher, all of them signifying each or every. The English 
distributive pronouns either and neither are expressed in Ger- 

man by the words einer tton beiben and fetner Den reiben. 

The distributive pronouns are declined aecording to the first 
declension of adjeetives. 

WDEFIMTE PR OJYO UjXS. 

§ 183. The indefinite pronouns are alfer, all, einer, some 
one, einiger, some, einziger, only, eKicfyer, some * etwa#/ 
something, jebemtan or jebermann, everybody, fein, no, and 
feiner, no one, jemanb, somebody, niemanb, nobody, man, 
one, mand)er, several, nitf)t3, nothing, feilet, such. 

§ 184. All of these pronouns which end in er are declined 
in the same manner as adjeetives. 

§ 185. $CÜ1, an adjeetive pronoun, is declined like the in- 
definite article ein, eine, ein. 

§ 186. 3 c Wtanb ana " niemanb are declined alike, as follows. 

I. Nom. jemanb, 
Gen. jemanb^ or jemanbetf, 
Dat. jemanb or jemanbem, 
Acc. jemanb or jemanbem 

II. Nom. niemanb, 

Gen. niemanb^ or niemanbem, 
Dat. niemanb or niemanbem, 
Acc. niemanb or niemanbem 

* This pronoun is very seldom used in the singular. Itf 
plural forms, etlicf)C, etc., are very common. 



PRONOUNS. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 57 

§ 187. %cbexmann, is indeclinable, except that an 3 is add- 
ed for the genitive, jebermamttf* 
§ 188. (£rrr)a3, malt, and tlid)t$ are indeclinable. 

DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

§ 189. I. The Substantive pronouns which have- different 
forms for different genders or numbers agree in gender and 
number with the nouns for which they stand ; e. g. fte tfit Qllt, 
she is good. 

§ 190. II. In regard to case the same rules apply to Substan- 
tive pronouns as to substantives themselves.* (See § 83 seq.) 

§ 191. III. The adjective pronouns, like adjectives them- 
selves, agree in gender, number, and case with the nouns which 
they qualify ; e. g. meinem Ambe, to my child, tiefet Drtetf, 
of this place. 

§ 192. IV. Those adjective pronouns which are employed 
without any noun expressed, agree in gender, number, and 
case with some noun understood to which they relate ; e. g. 
biefe tfi meine, this is mine, spoken, for instance, of a flower, 
bie 25fame* 

§ 193. V. The dative of personal pronouns issometimes em- 
ployed, but somewhat vulgarly, as follows : bu hift mit ettt 
fcfyöner ©efetf, you're a fine fellow, ba3 tft btr eine jhmft, 
there's a trick, ba$ tt>ar enrf) eüt gejt, that was a feast.t 

§ 194. VI. The Germans seldom or never use the proper 
pronoun of the second person singular, except in addressing per- 
sons very familiarly or authoritatively, and in poetry. Instead 
of it the plural pronoun of the third person is used, viz. (Sie 

* Hence, in some of the examples given under the head of 
the determination of the form of nouns, pronouns are present- 
ed, as being most conveniently employed. 

f Similar expressions are of frequent oecurrence in English. 
E. g. we can say in familiär language, as well as the Germans, 
ThaVs a trick for you, that was afeastfor you, etc, 



58 PRONOUN. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

and its cases throughout.* These are always written with a 
capital letter, and the verb which agrees with the pronoun, if 
there be such a verb in the expression, likewise takes the plu- 
ral number and third person ; e. g. tacfyen ( Bic f mein j^err ? 
do you laugh, Sir? (literally, do they laugh?) icf) tydbe C$ 
Sorten cr$ä t)ft, I have related it to you. 

§ 195. VII. The neuter pronoun of the third person, e£, is 
used in a peculiar manner in German ; e. g. e$ meinet ber 
Mnahe, the boy cries, e6 gehen bie grauen, the ladies are go- 
ing, e3 finb Männer, they are men. It is likewise used with the 
subjunetive mode of verbs, in such expressions as the following : 

eg lefe roer ba f ann, let him read that can, e3 lebe ber $önig, 

long live the king. 

<§> 196. VIII. The contracted form of the genitive exhibited 
in the declensions of all the personal pronouns is seldom used 
except by poets. Many people say, however, um tttettt 
( metner) fc(6jr mitten, for my sake, etc. 

§ 197. IX. The word ftd), which is given as a second form 
for the dative and aecusative singularand plural of the pronoun 
of the third person, is called the reeiprocal pronoun. It is 
used in cases like those in which we append seif or selves to 
a pronoun of the third person in English ; e. g. ba$ ^pferb 
trägt ftd) (Htt, the horse carries himself well, an jTcr), in itself.t 

§ 198. X. £er is always used instead of the other relative 
pronouns after a vocative case, or without a vocative when one 
is understood ; e. g. £) ©Ott ! ber £u fcon (Smigfeit bijt, O 

* This violation of gram mar for the sake of ceremony sur- 
passes our Substitution of you, the plural pronoun of the second 
person, for thou. The same form with ours was originally 
used in the German, viz. the plural 3fy*V y° L1 » w ' m * ts cases, 
and it is sometimes seen at the present day in poetry. 

f The celebrated German grammarian, Heinsius, affirms, 
very whimsically, that the 3 in ftd) Stands for feilt, and the 
sense of the word is feilt td). (See Ins Sprachlehre, Part I. p. 
95, 4th Ed.) 



PRONOUN. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 59 

God ! who art from eternity, or simply, £)er £u fcou ($ttug* 
fett btjt, O tfiou who, etc. 

§ 199. XI. T)CV is in general more familiär than tt)efd)er ; 
e. g. mein ©öftncfyctt bas> td) Hebe febr, my son whom I love 
very much, ber £err, an welchen td) tyabc gefctyrteben, the 
gentleman to whom I have written. 

§ 200. XII. The relative pronouns ber and n)e(d)er are more 
definite in their nature than rüer, both relatively and interrog- 
atively ; e. g. Wer licht muß feibett, he who loves must sufFer, 
baö £» au ^ baö mir gehört, the house that belongs to me, baö 
23ud) wekbetf td) habe gefcfyrteben, the book which I have 
written, U)er tjt ber ffiann ? who is the man ? Hence, when 
choice is denoted, rüefrfyer is used ; e. g. e3 jTttb $Wei) ^3ferbe, 
tr»e(d)eö tton bci)bett Vt>iHfl: blt ? there are two horses, which 

of the two do you want ? $]cr gab btr btcö f&nd) ? (£tu 

^remtb. $öeld)er ? Who gave thee this book ? A friend. 
What friend ? 

§ 201. XIII. 5öer is never used, like n)e(d)er r in agreement 
with a noun. Thus, tt>e(d)er ^atttt, what man, never Wer 
tyla Ult, etc.* 

§ 202. XIV. The genitive of tt>e(d)er is never employed 
without a noun : the genitive of ber is always used instead ; 
e. g. ber Wlann beffett (not rt)e(d)e^) Umjtänbe td) femte, 

the man whose circumstances I know, bte grauen bereit (not 
tt>eld)er) (5d)önbett td) babe gelobt, the women whose beau- 
ty I have praised. 

§ 203. XV. The use of fo as a relative pronoun is hardly 
elegant, but is very common ; ba$ 23ett fo td) l)abc Qefailft, 

* :£Ört$, the neuter of VOCt*, is sometimes used for ttXtrUUt, 
why. Though this usage is not considered elegant, it oecurs 
in the works of Göthe, Geliert, Gessner, etc. E. g. Sfß CL 3 
btrgft blt fo bana, beut @eftd)t ? Why dost thou hide tl.y face 

so timidly ? {Göthe.) $0B a ö quäteft <&k mtd) mit 3brer 

@efel)rfimfe{t ? Why do you torment ine with your learning ? 
{Geliert.) 



60 PRONOUN. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

the bed which I have bought. Wieland very often employs 
the word in this manner. 

§ 204. XVI. In German the relative can never be omitted, 
as it often is in English. In English we say, the estate he pos- 
sesses, but we must say in German, ba$ ©ut ttjetcfyeö or t>a$ 
er befuget 

§ 205. XVII. In correspondence with the use of (Bte and its 
cases for blt and its cases (see § 194), the possessive pronouns 
3l)r, 3brer r and übrige are used instead of beut, beilter, and 
betlttße ;* e. g. eö Xpfc 3t)r $>au$, it is yourhouse., The form 
in the old German was (£x\CT f etc. corresponding exactly to our 
English word your, and the same form is now frequently seen 
in German poetry. (Compare Note to § 194.) 

§ 206. XVIII. The demonstrative pronoun ber is quite usual 
in the language of the common people instead of biefer ; e. g. 
ber famt lticrjt fitretben, that man cannot wiite. 

§ 207. XIX. The neuter of the nominative singular of ber is 
often used like e3, (see § 195) with the plural of the verb fet)lt 
and a noun following in the plural ; e. g. bci£ fütb bte graiten 
röelcfte etc., those are the ladies who etc. The neuter of the 
demonstrative pronoun btefer is used in the same way ; e. g. 
bieg fmb bte Männer, these are the men. 

§ 208. XX. Where a possessive pronoun would be ambigu- 
ous, the genitive of ber, both singular and plural, is frequently 

substituted for it ; e. g. ber $fta\m geigte ' bem ^etruä ben 
SßBertf) bejfen (Siiteä, instead of feinet ©iltc$. Were the word 
feiltet used, it would not appear to which of the two persons 
the estate belonged, but the word bcffert refers it to the last 
mentioned : the man showed Peter the value of his (i. e. Pe- 
ter's) estate. 

# In fashionabte society tlie indeclinable word ^ei'O is era- 
ployed (especially in letters to superiors,) for all cases of tlie 

pronouns 3l)r and Styrer; e. g. id) Dtu £>ere qeborfamffer 

Wiener, I am your most obedient servant. Tims, too, the 
word JjbTÜ is often ernployed in court style instead of (Jure and 
(Seine; e.g. 3t)re ^ajeffät, his Majesty. 



PRONOUN. POSITION. 61 

§ 209. XXI. When the demonstrative pronoun ber is follow- 
ed by a noun, it is of the same form as the article ber ; i. e. 
the most contracted forms given in its declension (see § 168) 
are employed, genitive singular beS, ber, bt$, not befielt, be* 
rett r befien, genitive and dative plural ber and ben, not berer 
and benen. If no noun follows, the füll forms are generally 
used. 

§ 210. XXII. The distinction between btefer and jener is 
this : btefer denotes the nearer or latter of two objects, jener 
the more remoteor former ; e. g. btefe3 (or bieg) ijt fcfyölter Ct(3 
jeited, this is more beautiful than that. Hence one of them is 
sometimes used instead of a personal pronoun, to avoid ambi- 
guity ; e. g. if I say, ber Stuahe Qcib ihm ba3 33nd), al$ er 
fam narf) ftattfe, it is not apparent which came home, so that 
it is better to say aU btefer or afö jener, according to the in- 
tended sense. 

§ 211. XXIII. The demonstrative pronoun bcrfcf^C is fre- 
quently used through all the cases of the plural in addressing 
or mentioning a person with ceremony ; e. g.- ttf) Werte X^e* 
nenfct&en febr Derbnnben fet)n, I shall be very much obliged 
to you. The word ()orf), with its Superlative böd)jt, and the word 
altert)öcr)|t are often found prefixed to btcfcffren and its cases, 
according to the rank of the person denoted ; as, boct)bicfe(6en, 
etc. This mode of expression, however, is not in accordance 
with good taste. 

POSITION. 

§ 212. I. The rules which we have laid down respecting 
the position of nouns and adjectives apply also to pronouns, 
according as they are used substantively or adjectively. 

§ 213. IL When a verb governs two personal pronouns, 
one in the dative and the other in the accusative case, the ac- 
cusative may take precedence ; e. g. ftf)ret& e6 mir, write it 

6 



62 PRONOUN. PECULIARITIES. 

for me, er $tef)t btrf) mir fcor, he prefers thee to me. Yet it 
is often immaterial which Stands first. 

§ 214. III. When the verb is placed at the end of a clause, 
the dative or accusative of [a personal pronoun often occurs 
before the nominative ; e. g. afö mir bie 9cacf)rid)t fam, when 
the news came to me. 

Additional PeculiaritieS. 

§ 215. 1. The same pronoun is frequently made to serve for 
two or more verbs, in such expressions as the following ; id) 
lefe imb fcfyreibe, I read and write, er machte einen Umweg, 
cjtng narf) §attfe, bort fanb feine gran, nnb tröftete fte bnrcfy 

feine (Gegenwart, he made a cireuit, went home, there found 
his wife, and comforted her by his presence. 

§ 216. IL The nominative of personal pronouns is often 
used redundäntly, in such expressions as the following : tef) 
ber irf) meinen $atcr liebe, I who (I) love my father, £>n, 
ber 2>n btffc t)0n <$W\$ieit, thou who (thou) art from eternity. 
In some cases this phraseology obviates an ambiguity which 
would otherwise exist in regard to ber» 

§ 217. III. The nominative of personal pronouns is some- 
times omitted in familiär language and in poetry ; but this prac- 
tice is inelegant ; e. g. bin nie m ber (gtabt geroefen, I have 
never been in the city. 

§ 218. IV. The pronoun tef) is sometimes employed as a 
noun ; e. g. er tflt mein anbereö Sri), he is my other I, or 
other seif. 

§ 219. V. The neuter pronoun of the third person, e$, is 
frequently united with another word, the e being dropped ; 
e. g. mir$ for mir e$, bir$ for bir e$* 



VERB. 63 

CHAP. V. 
VERB. 

VARIATION. 

General Statement. 

§ 220. German verbs, like verbs in other languages, are 
either Transitive or Intransitive. Transitive verbs are those 
which necessarily suppose some object on which they may 
operate ; Intransitive verbs are those which require no such 
object E. g. befreit, to possess, is a transitive verb, since it 
requires an object, something to be possessed ; but fcfytctfeit, 
to sleep, is Intransitive, for we cannot sleep anything.* 

§ 221. Reflexive verbs in German are so called because 
the thing expressed by the verb falls hack, as it were, upon 
the subject ; e. g. td) ttebe mtd), I love myself. 

§ 222. Verbs are either Simple or Compound. Com- 
pound verbs are formed by joining particles to the simple 
verbs. E. g. au^ttefymett, to except, is compounded of the 
simple verb nehmen, to take, and CM^, out. 

§ 223. German verbs, like English, are varied by means 
of voice, mode, tense, number, and person. 

§ 224. There are two voices, the active and passive. The 
passive voice, as appears from our definition of transitive 
and intransitive verbs, properly belongs only to those verbs 
which are transitive. It is formed in German, as in English, 
by the aid of an auxiliary verb. 

§ 225. There are four modes, the Infinitive, indicative, 

* Many verbs are transitive in one sense and intransitive in 
another ; e. g. fefyett, to look, to see, fefyett traurig, to look sacl 
(intrans.), but (eben fcett 9Ötotttt, to see the man (trans.) 



<>4 AUXILIARY VERBS. 

subjunctive, and imperative. Besides, there are Iwo partici- 
ples, the present and perfect. 

§ 226. There are Ihree tenses in the infinitive mode, viz. 
the present, perfect, midfuture ; six'm the indicative, viz. the 
present, imperfecta perfect, pluperfcct,first and second futures ; 
eight in the subjunctive, viz. the present, imperfect, perfect, 
pluperfect,first and second futures, fir st and second condition- 
als ; and one, the present, in the imperative. 

§ 227. There are two numbers, the Singular and plural. 
The distinction of number belongs to all the tenses of the verb, 
except those of the infinitive. ' 

§ 228. There are three persons to each number, corres- 
ponding with the personal pronouns, viz. the^r^, second, and 
third. From this Statement we must except the Impersonal 
verbs, as they are called, which are used only in the third 
person singular. 

§ 229. In German, as in English, many of the verbs are 
irregulär in their conjugation. The irregularities bear a con- 
siderable similarity to the irregularities of English verbs. 
Regulär verbs are conjugated by mere changes of termina- 
tion,* and the aid of auxiliary verbs ; irregulär verbs exhibit 
changes in the substantial part of their form» 

AUXILIARY VERBS. 

§ 230. The proper auxiliary verbs in German are three in 
number, viz. feMI, to be, fyaben, to have, and Werben, to be- 
come. The difference betvveen these verbs and others which 
often have the appearance of being real auxiliary verbs, viz. 
faffen, mögen, bi'trfcn, fefien, etc., is this : that the three 
first-mentioned verbs are necessary to the complete conjuga- 

* To this remark the perfect participle is the sole exception, 
to form which, as will be seen hereafter, it is, in general, ne- 
cessary to prerlx a syllable. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 65 

tion of other verbs, through the voices, modes, and tenses 
which we have enumerated, while the others are not. 

§ 231. The tenses formed by the aid of these auxiliaries, 
and the particular auxiliaries employed in the different tenses, 
are as follows. In the Infinitive mode of the active voice, 
the perfect tense is formed with the aid of fyabett or fci>tt, and 
the future with the aid of Werben* In the indicative and 
subjunctive modes of the active voice, the perfect, pluperfect, 
and second future are formed with the aid of r)Cl6cn or feint, 
and the first future with the aid of werben ; the first condi- 
tional of the subjunctive is formed with the aid of werben, 
the second with that of fyafcen or fet>U* The passive voice is 
formed, throughout its modes and tenses, with the aid of wer* 

ben* 

§ 232. We have said that certain tenses are formed with 
the aid of Ijaben or feint* In all transitive verbs they are 
formed with haben, and also in the greater number of intran- 
sitive verbs. But a considerable number of intransitive verbs 
take fei)n* Some verbs take fyabeit when they are used in 
one sense and fei)lt when used in another. (For lists of these 
verbs, and some further remarks, see Appendix M.) 

§ 233. The auxiliary verb feint, to be, is conjugated as fol- 
lows : 

Infinitive. Participles. 

Pres, feint, to be. Pres, feijenb, Wefenb, being.* 

Perf. gewefen feint, to have Post, gewefen, been. 
been. 

Fut. feint werben, to be about 

to be. 

# (Seijenb has become too antiquated for an elegant style; 
and Wefenb is now found only in some Compounds, as Ctfcwe? 

fenb, anwefenb* 

6* 



66 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 



Indicative. 
Singular. 

icf) Mn, I am. 

blt tnft/ thou art. 

er, ffe, e$ ifr, he, she, it is. 

. Plural. 
mir jutb, we are* 
ihr fei)b, you are. 
ftc fcnb, they are. 



Subjunctive. 
Present. 

Singular, 
icf) fei), I may be. 
bu feijejt, or fei)(r, thou mayest 

be. 
er fei), he may be. 

Plural. 

mir feiert, or fei)U, we may be. 
ihr fei)et, or fei)b, you may be. 
fte fei)en, or fei)n, they may be. 



Imperfecta 
Singular. Singular. 

icf) mar, I was. icf) wäre, I might be. 

bll mar jr, or marejt, thou wast. bu märeft, thou mightest be. 

er märe, he might be. 

Plural. 

mir mären, we might be. 
Ü)r märet, you might be. 
fte mären, they might be. 



er mar, he was. 

Plural. 

mir maren, we were. 
ü)r maret, you were. 
pe maren, they were. 



Perfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

icf) bin gemefen, I have been. icf) fei) gemefen, I may have 

been. 

bu bift gemefen, etc. bu feijejt gemefen, etc. 

Pluperfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

icf) mar gemefen, I had been. icf) märe gemefen, I might 

have been. 

bu marft gemefen, etc. bu märeft gemefen, etc. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 67 

First Future. 
Singular. Singular. 

td) werbe feint, I shall be. td) werbe feint, I shall be. 
bn wtrjt feint, thou wilt be. bu werbeft feint, thou wilt be. 
er wirb fetm, he will be. er werbe feint, he will be. 

Plural. Plural. 

wir werben fepn, we shall be. wir werben feint, we shall be. 
tftr werbet feint, you will be. tfyr werbet fetm, you will be. 
fte werben feint/ they will be. fte werben fetm, they will be. 

Second Future. 
Singular. Singular. 

td) werbe gewefen fetm, I shall td) werbe gewefen fet>rt, I shall 

have been. have been. 

bn wirft gewefen fcprt, etc. t>n werbejl gewefen fetm, etc. 

First Conditional. 
Singular. 

id) würbe fet)tt, I should be. 
bn würbejt fetm, etc. 

Second Conditional. 
Singular. 

td) Würbe gewefen feint, I should have been. 
bn würbeft gewefen fetm, etc. 

Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

fetjen, or fetm Wir, let us be. 
fet) (bn), be (thou). fei)b (tfyr), be (you), or do 

(you) be. 
fei) er, let him be. fetm or fetjen fTe, let them be. 






68 



ATJXILIARY VERBS. 



§ 234. The auxiliary verb fyabett, to have, is conjugated as 
follows : 

Infinitive. Parüciples. 

Pres, fyabett, to have. Pres, fyabcnb, having. 

Perf. gehabt ^aben, to have Past. gefyafct, had. 

had. 
Fut. fyaben werben, to be 

about to have. 



Indicative. 



Singular. 

id) fyabc, I have. 

btt \)&$, thou hast. 

Ct, fte, e$ fydt, he, she, it has. 



Subjunctive. 
Present. 

Singular. 
id) fyabe, I may have. 
btt bdbeft, thou mayest have. 
er, ffe, c$ fyahe, he, she, it 
may have. 



Plural. Plural. 

mir fyaben, we have. . wir haben, we may have. 

tf)r fyaht, or fyabet, you have. ifyr tyahet, you may have. 

fte Ijaben, they have. fte fyabcn, they may have. 



Singular. 

\d) fyatte, I had. 

bu fyattejt, thou hadst. 

er fyettte, he had. 

Plural. 

mir fyctrteti, we had. 
ifyr hattet, you had. 
fte fyattett, they had. 



Imperfect. 

Singular. 
id) hätte, I might have. 
butyätteft, thou mightest have. 
er t)<Xtte, he might have. 

Plural. 
tt>tr bättett, we might have. 
tfyr fyättet, you might have. 
fte fyätteit, they might have. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. OX 

Perfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

icf) tjabe fjefyabt, I have had. tcf) f)a6e Qefyabt, I may have 

had. 
bn fyajr Qefyabt, etc. bn fyabejl gefyafct, etc. 

Pluperfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

tcf) hatte ge^a6t r I had had. tcf) fyätte gehabt, I might have 

had. 
bn fyatteft a,ei)a6t> etc. bn fyätteft gehabt, etc. 

First Future. 
Singular. Singular. 

tcf) werbe haben, I shall have. tcf) werbe fyaben, I shall have. 

bu wirft fyabcn, thou will bu werbejt ^a6en, thou wilt 

have. have. 

er wirb fyetben, he will have. er werbe §aben, he will have. 

Plural. Plural. 

wir werben fyaben, we shall wir werben tyaben, we shall 

have. have. 

tf)r werbet f)a6en, you will ifyr werbet haben, you will 

have. have. 

fte werben fjetben, they will fte werben fyaben, they will 
have. have. 

Second Future. 

Singular. Singular. 

icf) werbe Qetyabt tyaben, I tcf) werbe aefyabt fyaben, I 
shall have had. shall have had. 

bn wirft Qefyabt fyaben, etc. b« werbeft Qefyabt fjaben, etc. 



70 AUXILIARY VERBS. 

First Conditional. 
Singular. 

trf) würbe fyabert, I should have. 

bn würbeft fyaben, thou wouldst have. 

er würbe haben, he would have. 

Plural. 

mir würben fyaben, we should have. 
t()r würbet fyaben, you would have. 
fte würben §aben, they would have. 

Second Conditional. 
Singular. 

trf) würbe gehabt fyaben, I should have had. 
bn würbeft gehabt fyaben, etc. 

Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

haben wir, let us have. 
i)abe (bn), have (thou). ^abt or l)abct (ü)r), have 

(you), or do (you) have. 
habe er, let him have. fyaben fte, let them have. 

§ 235. The auxiliary verb Werben, to become, is conjuga- 
ted as follows : 

Infinitive. Participles. 

Pres, werben, to become. Pres, werbenb, becoming. 

Perf. geworben feint, to have Past. geworben, become.* 

become. % 

Fut. werben werben, to be 
about to become. 

* This participle is written thus in füll, only when the verb 
is used independently of any other verb ; but when it is used as 
an auxiliary, the syllable ge of the past participle is always 
dropped. E. g. trf) bin jmtg geworben, I have been young ; 
but, irf) bin gefrf)ntetrf)elt WOrben, I have been flattered. 



AUXILIARY VERBS. 71 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. 

Singular. Singular. 

id) werbe, I become. id) Werbe, I may become. 

bU Wirft, thou becomest. ' \m Werbejr, thou mayest be- 

come. 
er, ffe, e£ wirb, he, she, it er, ffe, e$ werbe, he, she, it 
becomes. may become. 

Plural. Plural. 

wir werben, we become. wir werben, we may become. 

tf)r Werbet, you become. tfyr Werbet, you may become. 

fie Werben, they become. ffe Werben, they may become. 

Imperfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

id) WUrbe, or warb, I became. id) Würbe, I might become. 

bn wnrbejt, or warbft, thou bn würbeft, thou mightest be- 

becamest. come. 

er Wnrbe, or warb, he be- er Würbe, he might become. 
came. 

Plural. Plural. 

Wir Wttrben, we became. Wir Würben, we might be- 

come. 

ihr Wnrbet, you became. ifyr Würbet, you might be- 

come. 

ffe Wltrben, they became. ffe würben, they might be- 

come. 

Perfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

id) bin geworben, I have be- id) fep geworben, I may have 
come. become. 

bn biflt geworben, etc. bn fet)jt geworben, etc. 



72 ATJXILIARY VERBS. 

Pluperfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

id) war geworben, I had be- id) wäre geworben, I might 

come. - have become. 

tu warejt geworben, etc. bxt wäre|t geworben, etc. 

First Future. 

Singular. Singular. 

id) werbe werben, I shall be- id) werbe werben, I shall be- 
come. come. 
bu wirft werben, etc. bit werbejt werben, etc. 

Second Future. 
Singular. Singular. 

id) werbe geworben feint, I id) werbe geworben fetm, I 

shall have become. shall have become. 

bn wirjt geworben fetjn, etc. bn werbejt geworben fe*)n,etc. 

First Conditional. 
Singular. 

id) würbe werben, I should become. 
bu würbe ft werben, etc. 

Second Conditional. 
Singular. 

id) würbe geworben fetjn, I should have become. 
tu würbeft geworben feijn, etc. 

Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

Werben Wir, let us become. 
Werbe (btt), become (thou). werbet (ifyr), become (you), 

or do (you) become. 
Werbe er, let him become. Werben jTe, let them become. 



REGULÄR VERBS. 73 



REGULÄR VERBS. 

§ 236. The regulär verbs, as we have said, are conjugated 
by a change of termination and the aid of the auxiliary verbs. 
The regulär verb leben, to praise, is conjugated as follows : 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres, lobeit, to praise. Pres, tobenb, praising. 

Perf. getobt fyabett, to have Past. getobet or gelobt, prais- 
praised. ed. 

Fut. toben werben, to be 

about to praise. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. 
Singular. Singular. 

icf) tobe, I praise, do praise, or tet) tobe, I may praise. 
am praising. 

bu tobjit or tobeft, thou prais- blt tobeft, thou mayest praise. 
est, dost praise, or art prais- 
ing. 

er, pe, or eg tobt or tobet,* er tobe, he may praise. 
he, she, or it praises, does 
praise, or is praising. 

Plural. Plural. 

tt)tr toben, we praise ,do praise, ttrir toben, we may praise. 

or are praising. 

t()r tobt or tobet, you praise. ü)r tobet, you may praise. 

fte toben, they praise. jTe toben, they may praise. 

* In the instances denoted throughout the verb the letter e 
is often dropped, as in this tense. Euphony rnust regulato its 
Omission. E. g. to say reißt instead of retfejt would be harsh. 

7 



74 REGULÄR VERBS. 

Imperfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

td) tobte or tobete, I praised, td) tobete, I might praise. 

or did praise. 
tu tobtejt or tobeteft, thou bu tobeteft, thou mightest 

praisedst. praise. 

er tobte or tobete, he praised. er tobete, he might praise. 
Plural. Plural. 

ttrir tobten or tobeten, we rotr tobeten, we might praise. 

praised. 
ihr tobtet or lebetet, you tfyr lohetet f you might praise. 

praised. 
fie lohten or tobeten, they jTe tobeten, they might praise. 

praised. 

Perfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

td) r/Ctbe getobt, I have praised. icf) fyahe getobt, I have praised. 
tu fyctfl getobt, etc. bn fyabejt geloht, etc. 

Pluperfect. 
tri) f)atte Qetobt, I had praised. td) r)ätte getobt, I had praised. 
bn l)atte\t getobt, etc. bn fyettteft getobt, etc. 

First Future. 
td) roerbe toben, I shall praise. td) roerbe toben, I shall praise. 
bn wirft toben, etc. bn roerbejt toben, etc. 

Second Future. 
td) roerbe getobt t)aben, I shall trf) roerbe getobt fyaben, I shall 
have praised. have praised. 

bu rtrirjr getobt §aben, etc. bn roerbeft getobt fjaben, ctc.^ 

First Conditional. 
irf) ronrbe toben, I should praise. 
tu roürbeft toben, etc. 



REGULÄR VERBS. 75 

Second Conditional. 

trf) würbe getobt baben, I should have praised. 
bu witrbeft gelobt tyahen, etc. 

Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

Toben Wir, let us praise. 

tobe (bu), praise (thou). tobet or tobt (ibr), praise 

(you), or do (you) praise. 
tobe er, let him praise. loben (Te, let them praise. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 
Infinitive. 
Pres, getobt Werben, to be praised. 
Perf. getobt Worben fei)n, to have been praised. 
Put. werben getobt werben, to be about to he praised. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. 

Singular. Singular. 

id) werbe getobt, I am praised. id) werbe getobt, I may be 

praised. 
bu wirft getobt, thou art buwerbejt getobt, thou mayest 

praised. be praised. 

er, fte, or e£ wirb getobt, he, er werbe getobt, he may be 

she, or it is praised. praised. 

Plural. Plural. 

wir werben getobt, we are wir werben getobt, we may 

praised. be praised. 

ifyr werbet getobt, you are ifyr werbet getobt, you may 

praised. be praised. 

fie werben getobt, they are fTe werben getobt, they may 

praised, be praised. 



76 REGULÄR VERBS. 

Imperfect. 

Singular. Singular. 

trf) würbe or warb getobt, I trf) würbe getobt, I might be 

was praised. praised. 

tu wurbeft or warbjt getobt, bn würbejt getobt, thou 

thou wast praised. mightest be praised. 

er würbe or warb getobt, he er würbe getobt, he might be 

was praised. praised. 

Plural. Plural. 

wir würben getobt, we were wir würben getobt, we might 

praised. be praised. 

if)r wnrbet getobt, you were tf)r würbet getobt, you might 

praised. be praised. 

fte wnrben getobt, they were fte würben getobt, they might 

praised. be praised, 

Perfect. 

Singular. Singular. 

icf) bin getobt worben, I have irf) fet> getobt worbett, I may 

been praised. have been praised. 

bn bift getobt worben, thou bu fepcjt gelobt worben, thou 

hast been praised. mayest have been praised. 

er tjt getobt worben, he has er (et) getobt worben, he may 

been praised. have been praised. 

Plural. Plural. 

wir jmb getobt worben, we wir fet)en gelobt worben, we 

have been praised. may have been praised. 

ifyr fet)b getobt worben, you it)r fetjet getobt worben, you 

have been praised. may have been praised. 

fte fmb getobt worben, they fte fet;en getobt worben, they 

have been praised. may have been praised. 



REGULÄR VERBS. 



77 



Pluperfect. 



Singular. 

icf) war gelobt werben, I had 

been praised. 
tu warft getobt worben, thou 

hadst been praised. 

er war getobt worben, he had 
been praised. 

Plural. 

wir waren gelobt werben, we 

had been praised. 

ibr wäret getobt worben, you 

had been praised. 

jTe waren getobt worben, they 
had been praised. 



Singular. 

tef) wäre getobt worben, I 

might have been praised. 
bn wärejl getobt worben, thou 

mightest have been praised. 

er wäre getobt worben, he 
might have been praised. 

Plural. 

wir waren getobt worben, we 

might have been praised. 
ifyr wäret getobt worben, you 

might have been praised. 
pe wären getobt worben, they 

might have been praised. 



First Future. 



Singular. 

tef) werbe getobt werben, I 

shall be praised. 
bn mvft getobt werben, thou 

wilt be praised. 
er wirb getobt werben, he will 

be praised. 

Plural. 

wir werben getobt werben, we 

shall be praised. 

ifyr werbet getobt werben, you 

will be praised. 

ffe werben getobt werben, they 
will be praised. 

7* 



Singular. 

irf) werbe getobt werben, I 

shall be praised. 
bn werbe jl getobt werben, thou 

wilt be praised. 
er werbe getobt werben, he 

will be praised. 

Plural. 

wir werben getobt werben, 

we shall be praised. 

ifyr werbet getobt werben, you 

will be praised. 
(Te werben getobt werben, 

they will be praised. 



78 REGULÄR VERBS". 

Second Future. 
Singular. Singular. 

tcf) werbe gelobt werben feint, icfy werbe getobt worben feint, 
I shall have been praised. I shall have been praised. 

bu wirft getobt werben fe^n, buwerbeft getobt worben feint, 
thou wilt have been praised. thou wilt have been praised. 

er wirb getobt worben fenn, er werbe getobt worben feint, 
he will have been praised. he will have been praised. 

Plural. Plural. 

wir werben getobt worben wir werben getobt worben 

feint, we shall have been fei)n, we shall have been 

praised. praised. 

tfyr werbet getobt worben feint, tfyr werbet getobt worben feint, 

you will have been praised. you will have been praised. 

f(e werben getobt werben feint, fte werben getobt werben feint, 

they will have been praised. ' they will have been praised. 

First Conditional. 
Singular. 

\<t) würbe getobt werben, I should be praised. 

btt WÜrbejt geloht Werben, thou wouldest be praised. 
er würbe getobt werben, he would be praised. 

Plural. 

wir würben getobt werben, we should be praised. 
.if)r würbet getobt werben, you would be praised. 
f e würben getobt werben, they would be praised. 

Second Conditional. 
Singular. 
irf) Würbe getobt Werben feint, I should have been praised. 
tu WÜrbejt getobt Worben feim, thou wouldst have been praised. 
er Würbe getobt Werben fe^n, he would have been praised. 



REGULÄR VERBS, 79 

Plural. 

Wir Würben gelobt Werben fei)n, we should have been praised. 
tfyr Würbet getobt Werben feint, you would have been praised. 
ffe Würben getobt Werben feint, they would have been praised. 

Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

werben wir getobt, let us be 

praised. 
werbe (bn) gelobt, be (the-u) werbet (ifyr) getobt, be (ye or 

praised. you) praised. 

werbe er getobt, let him be werben fie getobt, let them be 

praised. praised. 

§ 237. The verb which we have presented as an example 
of regulär conjugation takes, it is seen, fydbeit as its auxiliary 
in those tenses where fyabett or fei)tt must be used. We will 
now present the conjugation of reifen, to travel, an intransi- 
tive verb, which requires feint in those tenses. (See Appen- 
dix M.) There is no other difference between the two forms 
of conjugation, except the absence of a passive voiee in 
reifen on aecount of its being an intransitive verb. (See 
§ 224.) 

Infinitive. Participle. 

Pres, reifen, to travel. Pres, reifenb, travelling. 

Perf. gereift fei)n, to have Past. gereifet or gereift, trav- 
travelled. elled. 

Fut. reifen werben, to be about 
to travel. 



80 REGULÄR VERBS. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. 

Singular. Singular. 

tcf) reife, I travel, do travel, or i<f) reife, I may travel. 

am travelling. 
blt reife jt, thou travellest, dost im reife jt, thou mayest travel. 

travel, or art travelling. 
er, ffe, or e3 reift or reifet, er reife, he may travel. 
. he, she, or it travels, does 
travel, or is travelling. 

Plural. Plural. 

tt)ir reifen, we travel, do trav- tt>ir reifen, we may travel. 

el, or are travelling. 

ihr reift or reifet, you travel. ihr reifet, you may travel. 

ffe reifen, they travel. ffe reifen, they may travel. 

Imperfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

tcf) reifte or reifete, I travelled id) reifete, I might travel. 

or did travel. 

reijleft or reifere)?, thou trav- fcn reifetejt, thou mightest 

elledst. travel. 

er reifte or reifete, he travelled. er reifete, he might travel. 

Plural. v Plural. 

wir reiften or reifeten, we tt>ir reifeten, we might travel. 

travelled. 
tfyr reiftet or reiferer, you it)r reifetet, you might travel. 

travelled. 
fte reiften or reiferen, they ffe reifeten, they might travel. 

travelled. 



REGULÄR VERBS. 81 

Perfect. 

Singular. Singular. 

id) bin gereift, I have travel- id) fei) gereift, I have travel- 

led. led. 

bu bift gereift, etc. bu feöeft gereift, etc. 

Phiperfect. 

id) war gereift, I had travel- id) märe gereift, I had travel- 

led. led. 

bu wareft gereift, etc. bu wareft gereift, etc. 

First Future. 
id) werbe reifen, I shall travel. id) werbe reifen, I shall travel. 
bu wirft reifen, etc. bu werbeft reifen, etc. 

Second Future. 
id) werbe gereift feint, I shall id) werbe gereift feint, I shall 

have travelled. have travelled. 

bu wirft gereift feint, etc. bu werbeft gereift feijn, etc. 

First Conditional. 
id) würbe reifen, I should travel. 
bu würbeft reifen, etc. 

Second Conditional. 
id) Wi'trbe gereift feint, I should have travelled. 
bu würbeft gereift feint, etc. 

Imperative. 

Singular. Plural. 

reifen wir, let us travel. 

reife (bu), travel (thou). reifet or reift (ü)r),travel(you) 

or do (you) travel. 
reife er, let him travel, reifen fte, let them travel. 



82 IRREGULÄR VERBS. 



IRREGULÄR VERBS. 

§ 238. The irregulär verbs, as we have said, exhibit chan- 
ges in the substantial part of their forms. The change of ter- 
mination for the persons is the same as in the regulär verbs. 
When the imperfect tense of the indicative mode does not ter- 
minate in e, this letter is added to form the subjunctive im- 
perfect ; and when the imperfect indicative contains either of 
the vowels a, 0, and n, this vowel is changed in the subjunc- 
tive into the corresponding vowel d, Ö, or ü* 

§ 239. The irregulär German verbs are about two hundred 
in number, besides Compounds of some of them. (See a com- 
plete list of them in Appendix N.) 

§ 240. As a specimen of the conjugation of irregulär verbs 
we present the active voice of the verb binben, to bind. The 
passive voice of all irregulär verbs which have any passive 
voice, i. e. of all irregulär transitive verbs, is formed, like that 
of regulär verbs, by the union of the verb Werben with the 
past participle. Sßinben is conjugated as follows, 



Infinitive. Participles. 

Pres, btttbett, to bind. Pres, binbenb, binding. 

Perf. gcbunben fyaben, to Past. gebnnben, bound. 
have bound. 

Fut. binben werben, to be 

about to bind. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 
Present. 

Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. 

irf) binbe* wir binben, icf) bütbe. wir binben, 

bn binbejt. ifyr binbet bn binbeft tf>r binbet 

er binbet fte btnbem er binbe* fTe binben, 



IRREGULÄR VERBS. 83 

Imperfect. 
Singular. Plural. Singular. Plural. 

irf) banb» wir fcanbett* trf) bäube, wir bänbett» 

bu baubeft. tf^r banbet* bu bäubejt. ifyr bcrnbet 

er battb* ffe banben* er bänbe> jTe bänben» 

Perfect. 
trf) fyabe gebuubem irf) fyabe gebunberu 

bu baft gebuubeu, etc. bu fyabeft gebuubeu, etc. 

Pluperfect. 

irf) f^atte gebmtbert* irf) ^ättc gebuubeu* 

bu fyatteft gebuubeu, etc. bu bättejt §cHxtim\, etc. 

First Future. 
trf) werbe bütbeu, trf) werbe biubeu. 

tu wirft bütbeu, etc. bu werbejt btubett/ etc. 

Second Future. 
trf) werbe gebuubeu fyabem trf) werbe gebuubeu fjahen. 
tu wirft Qehm\ben tyahen, etc. bu werbeft gcbmtbeu ^ohtw, 

etc. 

JFtrsä Conditional. 

trf) würbe bütbem 

bu würbejt bütbeu, etc. 

Second Conditional. 

trf) würbe gebuubeu bähen, 

bu würbeft gebuubeu fyabeu, etc. 

Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

.... btubeu wir» 

btube (bu). hinget (tljr). 

bütbe er, btubeu (Te* 



84 REFLEXIVE VERBS. 



REFLEXIVE VERBS. 



§ 241. The reflexive verbs are conjugated like other verbs, 
with the addition of a personal pronoun as the object. The 
verb ftrf) Heben, to love one's seif, is conjugated as follows : 

Infinitive. Participles. 

Pres, firf) liehen, to love one's Pres, ftrf) Kebenb, lovinghim- 
self. seif, herseif, or itself. 



Indicative. 


Present. 


Subjunctive, 


Singular. 




Singular. 



tcf) liehe rmcfy, I love myself. irf) liebe micf), I may love my- 

self. 

bü liehft btrf), thou lovestthy- blt liehefl bidf, thou mayest 
seif. love thyself. 

ct/^or e$ Hebt ffcfy, he, she, er, pe, or cö liehe fid), he 
it loves himself, herseif, or she, it may love himself, 
itself. herseif, or itself. 

Plural. Plural. 

nrir liehen nn$, we love our- nrir Heben nng, we may love 

selves. ourselves. 

il)t liehet euer), you love your- tfyr liehet eud), you may love 

selves. yourselves. 

ffe lieben ficf), they love them- fte liehen (Trf), they may love 

selves. themselves. 

Imperfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

iefy Hebte micr), I loved my- irf) tiebete inirf), I might love 

seif. myself. 

bn ttebteft biet), thou etc. bn (iebctejl: biet), thou etc. 



REFLEXIVE VERBS. 85 

% 
Plural. Plural. 

wir liebten uu$, we loved wir lieberen un£, we might 

ourselves. love ourselves. 

ihr liebtet euer), you etc. ir)r fieberet euer), you etc. 

Perfect. 
Singular. Singular. 

id) habe mict) geliebt, I have ich habe mict) geliebt, I have 

loved myself. loved myself. 

t>u fyaft biet) geliebt, etc. bu fyabejt biet) geliebt, etc. 

Pluperfect. 

iet) hatte mict) geliebt, I had itf) hätte mict) geliebt, I had 

loved myself. loved myself. 

bu batteft biet) geliebt, etc. bu bättefr biet) geliebt, etc. 

First Future. 

id) werbe wirf) lieben, I shall icr) werbe mict) lieben, I shall 

love myself. love myself. 

feg wirft biet) lieben, etc. bu werbefr biet) lieben, etc. 

Second Future. 

id) werbe mict) geliebt r)aben, iet) werbe mict) geliebt t)aben, 

I shall have loved myself. I shall have loved myself. 

tu wirft biet) geliebt tyaben, bu werbeft biet) geliebt ha* 

etc. ben, etc. 

First Conditiondl. 
id) würbe mict) lieben, I should love myself. 
tu würbejt biet) lieben, etc. 

Second Conditional. 
tef) würbe mict) geliebt haben, I should have loved myself. 
bu würbejr biel) geliebt haben, etc. 

8 



86 IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

Imperative. 
Singular. Plural. 

. lieben nrir nng, let us love 

ourselves. 
liehe biet), love thyself. lieht or liehet eud), love your- 

selves. 
(tebe er jtd), let him love him- tteben fTe ficf>, let them love 
seif. themselves. 

IMPERSONAL VERBS. 

§ 242. These verbs should, properly, be called verbs of the 
third person, inasmuch as they are not strictly impersonal, 
i. e. without person. Custom, however, has fixed this desig« 
nation so firmly that we retain it. What are called imper- 
sonal verbs are employed in a peculiar manner, with the pro- 
noun e$, in the third person singular only. Many of the verbs 
which are used thus peculiarly as impersonal, have likewise 
the usual forms of conjugation as regulär or irregulär verbs. 
This is the case with the regulär impersonal verb e3 bomtert, 
it thunders, which we here present as an example. It is used 
as a personal verb in such expressions as the following : ©Ott 
bomterte nriber bie Ungerechten, God thundered against the 
wicked men. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. 

eg bomtert, it thunders. e$ bonnere, it may thunder. 

Imperfect. 
e$ bonnerte, it thundered. C$ bonnerte, it might thunder. 

Perfect. 

e$ l)at gebonnert, it has thun- c$ tyahe gebonnert, it may 
dered. have thundered. 



COMPOUND VERBS. 87 

Pluperfect. 

e$ hatte gebonnert, it had e$ tyätte gebonnerr, it had 
thundered. thundered. 

v First Future. 

eö wirb bonnew, it will thun- e£ werbe bonnern, it shall 
der. thunder. 

Second Future. 

cö wirb gebonnert haben, it eö werbe gebonnert haben, 
will have thundered. it shall have thundered. 

First Conditional. 

eg würbe bonnern, it should thunder. 

Second Conditional. 
e$ würbe gebonnert haben, it should have thundered. 

COMPOUND VERBS. 

§ 243. The conjugation of Compound verbs is in general 
the same as that of the simple verbs from which they are de- 
rived. In some instances, however, the Compound verb is 
regulär while the simple verb is irregulär, or the Compound 
verb is irregulär while the simple verb is regulai. E. g. an* 
(äffen (irregulär), öeranfafictt (regulär) ; rennen (irregulär), 
berennen (regulär) ; fernlagen (irregulär), ratfyfdjfagen and 
bcrathfcfylagen (regulär). (Comp. Appendix N, for other in- 
stances.) In addition to this the perfect participle of Com- 
pound verbs exhibits certain peculiarities, as follows : 

§ 244. First, verbs compounded with such particles as are 
proper words and have a meaning by themselves, (which are 
called separable particles,) are remarkable in this respect, 
that, instead of prefixing ge to form the perfect participle, they 
insert it between the separable particle and the rest of the 



88 VERB. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

verb ; e. g. aufgemacht, not cjeaufmadjt, perfect participle of 
the Compound verb aufmachen, to open. 

§ 245. Secondly, verbs compounded with inseparable par- 
ticles, that is, particles which have no meaning by themselves, 
do not take the syllable $e at all to form the perfect partici- 
ple ; e. g. the perfect participle of berichten, to inform, is be* 
richtet, not cjebericfytet* 

DETERMINATION OF FORM. 
I. VOICE. 
§ 246. There is no occasion for particular remark concern- 
ing the employment of the respective forms which distinguish 
the voices of verbs in German, since the usage is the same as 
in English, and is very simple. No one possessing a moder- 
ate acquainlance with general grammar could err on this point. 

II. MODE. 
§ 247. There is nothing peculiar to the German Ianguage, 
or requiring remark, in the use of the Indicative and Impera- 
tive modes. Only the Infinitive and Subjunctive modes, there- 
fore, will be particularly considered, 

A. Infinitive. 
§ 248. 1. The Infinitive mode of verbs is used sometimes with 
and sometimes without the preposition Jtt.f Since in the ca- 
ses when $lt is employed with the infinitive it may be consid- 
ered as a component part of this form of the verb, (just as to 
is thus considered in the infinitive of English verbs,) we think 

* The syllable ge is omitted also in the past participle of 
verbs ending in trett* For lists of the separable and insepa- 
rable particles, with some further explanation concerning them, 
see Appendix O. 

f In English the preposition to is almost invariably used with 
the infinitive. Yet there are cases, even in English, when to 
is omitted. E. g. He bid me take them, where take is in the 
infinitive mode, the sense being, He told me to take them. So 
in other instances. 



VERB. DETERMINATION OF FORM. ö5J 

it better to introduce the rules on this point here, than to pre- 
sent them under the head of the Preposition. 

§ 249. II. The infinitive is employed without gU : 

(a.) When the verb is only named ; in a dictionary, for in- 
stance, or a grammar, etc. 

( b.) When it Stands in the place of a noun, as nominative to 
a verb, or as its accusative ; e. g. lefeit itnb fcfyreibeit ffltb faff 
ttOtfylüenbige (Sachen, to read and write are almost essential 
things, ba6 nenne irf) fechten, that I call fighting. 

(c.) When it oecurs after the following verbs : bürfcit, to 
be permitted, fühlen, to feel, Reißen, to bid, fyelfen, to help, 
t)Ören, to hear, fennett, to be able, (äffen, to suffer or cause, 
teuren, to teach, lernen, to learn, mögen, to be able or to be 
willing, muffen, to be compelled, fefycit, to see, feilen, to be 
obliged, wollen, to will.* 

(d.) treiben, to remain, is used without gtt in connection 
with the following verbs : banden, to hang, flehen, to adhere, 
fnten, to kneel, liegen, to lie, ffften, to sit, (teefen, to stick, 
flehen, to stand ; e. g. er blieb fffcen, he kept his seat. ftaiy 
ren, to go in a carriage, is used in the sarne way with \$a? 
gieren ; e. g. iä) fuhr (parieren, I took a drive. ginben, to 
find, sometimes takes an infinitive without 31t ; e. g. er fant) 
ffe frf)lafen, he found them sleeping, irf) fanb bad S5ltcf) auf 
bem £tfrf)e liegeil. f (Rebelt, to go, before an infinitive some- 
times exeludes $it ; e. g. er gebt betteln, he goes about beg- 
ging. Stäben, to have, also requires the exclusion of $lt in 
such phrases as ffe haben gnt lachen, it is of no use to laugh, 
er bat ©elb auf 3^f eit Reben, he has money at interest. 
§0?ad)en, when it signifies to cause, to occasion, exeludes $U 
from the infinitive following ; e. g. irf) marfjte ffe lachen, I 

* In some instances lebreit and lernen allow the infinitive 
which follows them to take £it, 

f This usage, however, is not elegant. Tbe participle is pre- 
ferable to the infinitive in such cases. 

8* 



90 VERB. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 

made her laugh. Reiten, to go on horseback, takes fpa^tc* 
ren after it without gu ; e. g. er rettet fpa^teren, he takes a 
ride. Xbun, to do, when followed by Utrf)t3 afö, requires a 
subsequent infinitive to rejeet $U ; e. g. bte $inber tfylttt Utcf)t3 
al$ (arf)ett, the children do nothing but laugh.* 

(e.) An infinitive after the adjeetives gut, good, böfe, bad, 
Übel, evil, fcbtecrjt, bad, rejeets the $u i e. g. t)ter tft gut fpa* 
gieren, it is good to walk here. 

§ 250. III. The infinitive is emp!o3^ed with $U : 

(a.) After the verbs anfangen, to begin, aufboren, to cease, 
befehlen, to command, behaupten, to assert, benennen, to 
confess, bitten, to beg, broben, to threaten, erhafteu, to re- 
ceive, erFennen, to acknowledge, ertauben, to allow, ermann 
geht, to fall, erwarten, to expect, fürchten, to fear, gejtatren, 
to allow, haben, to have, ()oflFen, to hope, pflegen, to be wont, 
fet)n, to be, febetneu, to appear, tterbienen, to deserve, fcer* 
langen, to desire, wagen, to venture, ruiflfen to know, tt)Ün* 
fdjeu, to wish, and some others of like signification. 

(b.) In cases where an infinitive oecurs after another verb, 
but the sense of the former is not very intimately dependent 
upon the latter, the $U is inserted ; e. g. tefy ging $U bem 
9Kanne barüber $a fpreeben, I went to the man to speak with 

him about it. 

(c.) Commonly after adjeetives, e. g. td) bin gtÜcHicf) e3 $u 
fyörett, I am happy to hear it. 

(d.) After substantives which in English would be followed 
by ofov to; e. g. bor 9?uf ein ehrlicher Wlann $u femt, the 
reputation of being an honest man, ?uft ^U fachen, a desire to 
laugh. 

(e.) After the preposition anftatt or \tatt, instead of. ohne, 
without, and um, in order; e. g. anffott $U tanken, instead of 

* The infinitive fcf)tafen, to sleep, is in common langnage 
used with the reflexive verb, ftcf) (egeu, to lie down, without 

$u, E. g. jtd) fdjtafen legen, to go to bed. 



VERB. DETERMINATION OF FORM. 91 

dancing, ofyne $u fcfyfafen, without sleeping, liebet bic £ugenb, 
lim gtttcffid) $11 femt, love virtue in order to be happy. 

§ 251. IV. The Germans frequently use the indicative or 
subjunctive mode, where \ve use the infinitive in English ; e. g. 
do you believe that to be true ? would be rendered in German, 
glauben (&ie, baß bie$ wabr (et) ? — they do not know how to 
employ themselves, fte ttuffett ntcfyt, wie ffe jTrf) befcfyäfttgen 
fetten* 

§ 252. V. The infinitive present of German verbs is used to 
convey the sense of the English infinitive past ; e. g. feilt 
25ettef)mett tjt 31t (oben, his conduct is to be praised, (a$ tbn 
rufen, let him be called.* 

§ 253. VI. The infinitive of certain verbs is substituted for 
the past participle, when another infinitive precedes vvhich is 
immediately connected in sense with these verbs. They are, 
bt'trfen, to be permitted, Reißen, to bid, tyelfett, to help, fön* 
nett, to be able, (ctfiett, to cause, fcbrett, to teach, fernen, to 
learn, mögen, to be able or willing, mujjeu, to be compelled, 
[eben, to see, fetten, to be obliged, Wetten, to be willing ;t e. g. 
er bat e3 tbun fetten (for gefottt), motten (for gewollt), etc., 
he ought, would, etc., have done it, iify habe tt)tt fcfyreibctt febett 
(for gefeben), I have seen him write. 

B. Subjunctive. 

§ 254. 1. The general principle concerning the use of the 
subjunctive mode is, that it must be employed whenever some- 
thing uncertain is denoted by the verb. 

§ 255. IL It is therefore frequently employed after the con- 
junetions bamit, in order that, baß, that, ob, whether, Wenn, 
if, a($ tt)enit, as if, etc. ; particularly when they are prece- 

# This last expression may signify either, let him be called, 
or, let him call. The connection alone, in this and similar ca- 
ses, can prevent ambiguity. 

f Two of these, viz. (el)rett and fernen, often allow the em- 
ploy raent of the participle instead of the infinitive. 



92 VERB. TENSE. 

ded by such verbs as bebtttgett, to make conditions, befehlet!, 
to order, befördert, to apprehend, bitten, to entreat, exmaty 
nett, to exhort, fitrcfyten, to fear, glauben, to believe, fyoffen, 
to hope, ratzen, to advise, fcfyeinen, to appear, Wollen, to wish, 
wünfcfjen, to wish, zweifeln, to doubt, etc. E. g. itf) zweifle 
baß er feinen Bwecf ex reichen fönne, I doubt whether he can 
gain his objeet. 

§ 256. III. When any verb oecurs in a conditional tense, and 
the condition is denoted by wenn with another verb, the lat- 
ter must be put in the subjunetive ; e. g. Wenn £>U mir biefe 
greimbfcfyaft erzeigen fönntejt, itf) würbe etc., if you could 
manifest this friendship for me, I would etc. 

§ 257. IV. The subjunetive is frequently used at the begin- 
ning of a sentence or clause when wenn is understood ; e. g. 
Wäre itf) an 3brer (5 teile, were I in your place, or, if I were in 
your place, fyätte er ba$ ju fagen, had he that to say, or, if 
he had that to say. 

§ 258. V. The subjunetive is used in quoting one's own 
words or those of another ; e. g. id) fagte Ü)m, er tyabc mttf) 
betregen, I told him he had deeeived me, er antwortete mir, 
biefe^ fei) ltitf)t mög(id), he replied to me, this is not possible. 
Yet, when in such cases what is quoted is positively certain^ 
or is meant to be represented thus, the indicative is used. 

§ 259. VI. The imperfect subjunetive is frequently used in- 
stead of the first conditional ; e. g. e3 Wäre ©cfyabc, it would 
be a pity. Lessing, in " £te 3ut>en," says, fyätte \&)$ beef) 
nitf)t geglaubt, I should not have thought it. 

§ 260. VII. The subjunetive is often used optatively or im- 
peratively ; e. g. ber Stimmet bewahre (Sie, mayheaven pre- 
serve you, er fage )®a$ er Wolle, let him say what he will, 
©Ott bef)Üte, God forbid. 

III. TENSE. 
§ 261. I. The present tense is used, not only, as in English, 
to indicate time actually present, etc., but also sometimes to 



VERB. NUMBER AND PERSON. 93 

indicate past time continued to the present ; e. g. id) bin fcf)0tt 
t)tergef)U %a\)te ttt tiefem £anbe, I have been in this country 
fourteen years. 

§ 262. IL The imperfecl tense is used sometimes to denote 
something uncompleted at the occurrence of something eise, 
e. g. id) a$ f at$ er fallt, I was eating* when he came ; and 
sometimes to denote something completely past, e. g. @äfar 
eroberte (Hälften, Caesar conquered Gaul. 

§ 263. III. The perfect tense is often used in German to 
express something past which in English would be denoted 
by the imperfect ; e. g. id) habe ihn gefebeit, I saw him. 

§ 264. IV. In most, if not all, other respects the use of the 
tenses in German is the same as in English. 

IV. NUMBER JlJVD PERSON. 

§ 265. I. The general rule is, as in English, that the verb 
must agree with its nominative in number and person ; e. g. 
trf) fnrrf)te wir werben 9?ecjen bei omnten, I fear we shall have 
rain. 

§ 266. IL Although it is co:.nmonly the case when there 
are two or more nominatives to the same verb, that the verb 
is put in the plural number, yet sometimes, and more fre- 
quently than is allowable in English, the verb is put in the Sin- 
gular ; e. g. Ziehe nnb ©üte mad)t bie @:rbe $um Stimmet, 
love and goodness turn earth into Heaven. 

§ 267. III. The verb is put in the plural with a nominative 
in the singular in some cases of respectful address ; e. g. (£itre 
(£rceften$ fyaben gefaßt, your Excellency has said, 3fyre 
(Shtaben bemerfen, your Grace observes. 

§ 268. IV. When a verb relates to several nominatives of 
different persons, it is indeed put in the plural number, but 
agrees with the first person in preference to the second, and 
with the second in preference to the third ; e. g. £)U nnb irf) 

finb fyierin gleicher ^tteinnng, you and I are herein of the 



94 VERB. PARTICIPLE. 

same opinion (jmb first person plural), btt Uttb er kerbet 
gleiche (&d)id\ak bähen, you and he will have similar for- 
tunes. 

PART1C1PLES. 

§ 269. The participles in German are subjeet to the same 
principles of declension, comparison, and agreement as ad- 
jeetives. 

A. Present Participle. 

§ 270. I. The present participle in German is never used 

with the auxiliary verb to be as in English ; e. g. the Ger- 

mans must say id) fcr)rei6e, I am writing, etc. The present 

participle usually has the import of an adjeetive ; e. g. ber 

Mnahe tarn lacfyenb, the boy came laughing, ber focfyenbe 

Mtiahe, the laughing boy. 

§ 271. II. The present participle often governs a case, like 
other forms of the verb ; e. g. betö mir brofyenbe (scfyroert, 
the sword which is threatening me, bte 2(tfe3 feelebenbe 
(Sonne, the sun which animates every thing. 

§ 272. III. The present participle is often used with the 
preposition $u, to express the same sense as the infinitive pre- 
sent of the passive voiee ; e. g. etn $n fcfyretbenber SBrtef, a 
letter to be written, eine fefyr $lt tabefnbe ^etnnng, an opin- 
ion much to be blamed. 

§ 273. IV. In cases when in English the present participle 
is used with a preposition, such as of, Jrom, etc., the Ger- 
mans often make use of the infinitive with $it ; e. g. ba$ 35er? 
nttgeit $lt fcr)fafen, the pleasure of sleeping. 

§ 274. V. In English the present participle is frequently 
used in the following manner, ' Having reeeived your letter, 
I ordered, etc.' ; but in German such circumstantial clauses 
mußt be expressed by a tense of the verb preceded by a con- 
junetion ; e. g. ba id) erlieft 2»l)ren SSrief, when I reeeived 
your letter, not fyafeenb erhalten 3fyren 33rte|\ 



VERB. AUXILIARIES. 95 

§ 275. VI. The present participle is sometimes used in 
German as a noun ; e. g. ber (Scfytafeube, the sleeper, ber 
£>enfenbe, the thinker. 

B. Past Participle. 

§ 276. I. The past participle exhibits two distinct functions. 
It is employed as part of a verbal tense,e. g. trf) habe tfytt Der* 
Ctcfytet, I have despised him ; and sometimes as an adjective, 
e. g. ein tteracf)tete$ ©efcfyöpf, a despised creature. 

§ 277. II. The signification of the past participle is usually 
the same as in English ; but some past participles, joined with 
the verb fommen, have the sense of a participle present, e. g. 
er fömmt gelaufen, he comes running, er fömmt gefcfywom* 
men, he comes swimming. Other participles used in the same 
way are gefahren, geflogen, gegangen, gefacht (by Lessing), 
geritten, and gefprungen. 

§ 278. III. The past participle is sometimes, but not ele- 
gantly, used for the second person of the imperative mode ; 
e. g. $tttfd)er, £Ugefat)ren, drive on, coachman ! "oie &tuhe 
aufgeräumt, clear the room. 

§ 279. IV. The past participle is used in a peculiar way 
with the verbs haben and tt>ifien, when preceded by the verb 
weiten ; e. g. irf) wollte (Sie geliebt fyaben, I would have you 
loved, wir weiten (Sie erfudjt wiffen, we wish to have you 
requested, literally, we wish to know you requested. 

AUXILIARY VERBS. 

§ 280. I. When two or more Compound tenses occur togeth- 
er, the auxiliary is used but once : e. g. er bat e£ gefprocfyen, 
gefrf)rieben, UUb gebrucft, he has said, written, and printed it. 

§ 281. IL The auxiliaries haben and fei)U are frequently 
omitted when they would occur at the end of a sentence or a 

clause ; e. g. mein grcunb hat mir gefagt, bag er Sfyren 
55rief getefen {fyat), my friend told me that he read your let- 
ter. 



96 VERB. POSITION. 

§ 282. III. As in German there is no auxiliary verb cor- 
responding with the English one to do, such forms as I do 
fove, I did love, can be expressed only by the simple forms, 
td) fcfyrcibe, td) fdhrteb* The emphasis which is often con- 
veyed by the vvord do in the English forms referred to can 
be denoted in German only by an adverb ; e. g. td) fcfyretbe 
WtrfYtd), I really write. 

§ 283. IV. In English the words shall, will, should, would, 
could, and might, are used as auxiliaries in two quite distinct 
senses, which are denoted in German by different words. 
E. g. Iwill ivrite, may be in German, either td) werbe fdjret* 
ben, or td) wttf fcfyretben ; I shall do it, may be, td) »erbe 
e$ tfyun, or td) fott eö tijim ; etc. 

POSITION. 

§ 284. I. The general rule is, as in English, that the verb 
Stands after the subject and before the object, except in inter- 
rogative clauses, where it (or the first part of it, if it be a Com- 
pound form,) Stands before the subject also. (Compare §§ 
106, 109, and 121.) Some other less frequent exceptions to 
this general rule are mentioned in §§ 107, 108, 110, 112, 
113, 114, 116, 118, and 122. 

§ 285. IL A frequent exception to this rule is that when 
certain particles precede the verb, they cause the verb to pre- 
cede the subject. (Compare § 111, and see alistof these par- 
ticles in Appendix K.) 

§ 286. III. The verb is in certain cases removed entirely 
to the end of a sentence or a clause. (Comp. § 127.) This 
happens : 

(a.) When the sentence or clause containing the verb be« 
gins with one of the relative pronouns, ber, fo, Wefrfyer, Wer, 
WCL$ ; or some relative adverb, such as bdfyer, from whence, 
and baritm, for what, (which words are sometimes inelegant- 
ly used in these senses for Wel)er and warum,) Warum, 



VERB. POSITION. 97 

\y>e$fya(b or weg fyatbett, and Weswegen, for which reason, 
wherefore, (when these words are used relatively,) i)0U tvaxi* 
nett, from whence, WO, where, and its Compounds, as Wofyer, 

womit, worauf, wotton, etc. E. g. bie Wiäfixtet, bie un£ 

28ei3b,eit lehren Wetten, the men who would learn us wis- 
dom, wer ein outeö ©ewiffen \)at, ber ift ein fyeqbafter 
9D?aun, he who has a good conscience is a courageous man, 

wofyin man i>a$ 2Uta,e nnr wenbet, cxUidt man nicfytä atö 

(£fenb, where ver one turns his eye, he perceives naught but 
wretchedness. 

(b.) When an indirect question is asked by the aid of an 
interrogative pronoun or interrogative particle ; e. g. er fragt 
mid) u>e(tf)e$ 23ud) irf) heute in bem ©arten laö, he asks me 
what book I read to-day in the garden, faffen (Sie micr) Wiffen, 
wer ber 9D?ann ift, wo er pd) auf bäft, womit er pcf) be* 
ftfjäftigt, weswegen er bieder gekommen tft, w a g er 
3bnen gefaxt bat, nnb wann er wieber $u fommen gebenft, 
let me know who the man is, where he resides, what is his oc- 
cupation, why he came here, what he has told you, and when 
he intends to return. 

(c.) When a sentence or clause begins with certain con- 
junctions, viz. al$, when, befcor, before, bi$, tili, ba, since, 
bafem, in case that, bamit, in order that, ba$, or auf ba$, in 
order that, er)e, before, fal(3, or im gatfe, in case that, gteicfc 
Wte, even as, inbem, since, je (before adjectives), uacfybem, 
after that, UUU, now that, ob, whether (with all its Com- 
pounds), feit and feitbem, since, fo, if (with all its Compounds), 
wdfyreub, while, wann, when, weif, because, wann, if (and 
its Compounds), me, how, as (and its Compounds), WO, if 
(and its Compounds) ; e. g. al$ id) ben Kaufmann, welcher 
3(men ba$ ©elb fcj ufbig ift, jum testen Waty fal),* when 

* It is sometimes the case in sentences like this, containing 
a subordinate member which is connected with the rest of the 
sentence by a relative word, that the prineipal verb of the sen- 
tence is placed before, instead of after, the subordinate mem- 
9 



yö VERB. POSITION. 

I last saw the merchant who owes you the money, ba er febr 
antmntfyta. Mtb mid) toav, as he was very good-natured and 
weak. 

§ 287. IV. The Subjunctive mode, when it indicates a wish 
or astonishment, and also when the conjunction wenn is omit- 
ted before it (see § 257), often occurs at the beginning of a 
sentence or clause, the nominative being placed after it ; e. g. 
gebe e$ ber Stimmet, Heaven grant it ! möchte bte (Sonne 
borf) fcfyeincn ! would that the sun might shine ! fyätte trf)$ 
borf) nid)t geejtdnbt ! I should not have believed it ! tt)äre trf) 
l)ter gcroefen, if I had been her«. 

§ 288. V. The Imperative mode invariably precedes the 
personal pronoun which is the subject ; e. g. (obe bn, praise 
thou, (oben fte, let them praise. 

§ 289. VI. The general rule in regard to the position of 
the Infinitive mode is, that it must stand after all the other 
words of a sentence or clause ; e. g. er tt)Ünfrf)t bte £ateüt* 
ifcfye ©prarfje grnnbttrf) $n lernen, he wishes to leam the 

Latin language thoroughly. 

§ 290. VII. When a verb in the indicative or subjunctive 
mode must be assigned to the end of a sentence or clause, for 
either of the reasons mentioned in § 286, the infinitive mode 
immediately precedes them ; e. g. tt>et( trf) CtWaÜ $n Temen 
ttntnfrf)e, as I wish to learn something. 

§ 291. VIII. The infinitive of Compound tenses commonly 
follows the general rule stated in § 289 ; e. g. trf) Werbe mor* 

ber. E. g. we may say, ba trf) ben ?0?ann, rDefrfyer fo ebel 

0,cbarf)t, el)re ttnb Hebe, since I honor and love the man, who 

has thought so nobly, or, ba trf) t>m tfftcinn ef)re nnb liebe, 

tt>e(rf)er fo ebc( gebarf)t* Perspicuity and euphony alone can 
in any case determineour preference as to these modes of con- 
struction. The case is the same also in regard to the infinitive 
with £11, which may oceur either before or after the principal 
verb, according to euphony ; e. g. roetf trf) mtrf) mrf)t jn ^CUt* 
fett rOltnfrf)e, because I do not liUe to quarre], or, tt>et( trf) tttrf)t 

ttnmfrfje, mtrf) $u $cmfem 



PARTICIPLES. 99 

gen tue ©egenb bcfefyen, I shall view the country to-morrow. 
But, when the whole verb must be placed at the end of a sen- 
tence or clause, for some reason mentioned in § 286, the in- 
finitive of a Compound tense must be put before the auxiliary ; 

e. g. man fcnnte baranf rechnen, baß fte nnter alten (inU 
fdjließnngen bte fd)[ed)tejle ergreifen würben, one might ex- 
pect that they would adopt the worst of all resolutions.* 

§ 292. IX. When two infinitives occur together, the gov- 
erning one must be placed last ; e. g. er will ffe nid)t fernen 
(äffen, he will not let them learn. 

§ 293. X. When great stress is to be laid on the Infinitive, 
it is sometimes placed at the beginning of a sentence or a 
clause; e. g. fommen ttntt id) $war, a6er fd) reiben 
barf id) nid)t, come I will, indeed, but write I must not. 

§ 294. XI. The infinitive is sometimes employed as a Sub- 
stantive, and then takes its position accordingly. 

PARTICIPLES. 

§ 295. I. When either participle is employed as an adjec- 
tive, it takes its position accordingly. 

§ 296. II. The past participle of Compound tenses, like the 
infinitive of Compound tenses (§ 291), is generally placed af- 
ter all the other words of a sentence or clause ; e. g. id) fyabe 
fyente hie (Sacfye gehört, I have heard of the affair to-day. 

§ 297. III. When the whole verb must be placed at the 
end of a sentence or clause, the past participle, like the infin- 
itive in the same circumstances (§ 291), is put before the aux- 

* There is frequently an exception to this rule in the mode 
of exhibiting the first future tense of the passive voiee. When 
this tense oecurs at the end of a sentence or clause, the auxiliary 
isoften placed before the infinitive, in order to prevent the im- 
mediate recurrence of Werben ; e. g. id) erwarte, bd$ tiet* 

fdnebene ©acfyen md) nnferm £anfe werben gebracht wer? 

ben, I expect that several things will be brought to our house. 



100 COMPOUND VERBS. 

iliary ; e. g. bte Saaten, rcekfje Dort bem £)irf)ter gefcfyübert 
Werben, the deeds which are described by the poet. 

§ 298. IV. When the infinitive of an auxiliary verb is used 
with a past participle, the participle is placed first ; geliebt 
fyabett, to have loved. 

§ 299. V. In the second future and second conditional ten- 
ses, where a personal form of a veib occurs in connection 
with a participle and an infinitive, the personal form may fre- 
quently be placed either immediately before or immediately 
after the participle and infinitive ; e. g. ltarf)bem id) ba$ Sßitcf) 
getefeit fyaben Werbe, after I shall have read the book, or, 
itcidjbem id) baS $itcf) werbe gelefen fyctberu 

COMPOUND VERBS. 

§ 300. I. A verb compounded with inseparable particles 
(see Appendix O) is not subject to any Variation from the 
rutes already given concerning verbs in generaL 

<§ 301. II. A verb compounded with separable particles (see 
Appendix O) is resolved into two parts, (except in cases here- 
after stated,) the particle with which it is compounded being 
placed after all the words closely dependent upon the verb ; 
e. g. machen ©te bte Zljnn auf, open the door, not aitfnta* 
cfyen (Sie bte ZffVte. 

§ 302. III. This Separation into two parts, however, does 
not happen when the whole verb is removed to the end of a 
clause or sentence according to one of the principles stated in 
§ 286. In case of this removal the construction is regulär, as 
follows : ba td) eö für <&&)cv% annahm, since I took it for a 
joke. 

§ 303. IV. The infinitive mode of verbs compounded with 
separable particles is not subject to any such Separation of its 
parts, except that when the preposition $it accompanies it, it 
is inserted after the separable particle ; e. g. aufgurncidjert, 
not $u aufmachen* 



PARTICLES. 



101 



§ 304. V. The past participle of Compound verbs is not 
subject to any such Separation of its parts, except that the 
syllable ge, which is used to form the participle, is inserted af- 
ter a separable particle ; e. g. auf$cmad)t (Comp. § 244.) 



CHAP. VI. 

PARTICLES. 

General Statement. 



§ 305. The simple form of every adjective may be employ- 
ed as an adverb ; e. g. bte grau ift fdjott, fonbern hanbclt 
\\id)t fcfyött, the woman is handsome, but does not condnct 
handsomely. 

§ 306. Many adjectives and substantives are changed inlo 
adverbs by adding the letter $ ; e. g. bereite, already, from 
bereit, ready, morgen^, in the morning, from ber ^DiOrqeit, 
the morning.* 

§ 307. Some adverbs are formed from adjectives by add- 
ing the syllable iid) ; e. g. Waljrftrf), truly, from rt>abr, true ; 
freilich, indeed, from frei), free ; $etoi$lid), certainly, from 
gertn^, certain. 

§ 308. Numerais are changed into adverbs by adding lt£ ; 
e. g. erftens?, first, gtt?et)tcnÖ, secondly, etc. The following 
adverbs, also, are formed in the same manner : bejtettö, in the 
best way, ebeftert^, as early as possible, fyecrjfteitSv at the 
most, meijfctt$, mostly, übrigen^, as for the rest. 

§ 309. The comparative degree of such adjectives as are 
used adverbially is employed in its simple form as the com- 
parative degree of the adverb ; e. g. fcböltcr, more finely, 
befier, better. 

* See lists of such adverbs in Appendix P. 
9* 



102 PARTICLES. POSITION. 

§ 310. The preposition an or $U is often employed with the 
dative case, or auf with the accusative case, of the Superlative 
degree of such adjectives as are used adverbially, in order to 
form the Superlative degree of the adverb ; e. g. am fcfyönfren, 
most finely, am bejfen, best, $um menigften, at least, aitfö 
fyöcfyfk, at the most. 

§ 311. The Superlative degree of some few adjectives 
is used adverbially in its simple form without a preposition ; 
e. g. ältfferft, extremely, böcfyjt, most highly. 

§ 312. The Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection do 
not require any special remark in this connection. They 
correspond, very nearly, with the same parts of speech in 
English. 

POSITION. 

§ 313. I. An Adverb is generally placed after a Substantive 
which it qualifies ; e. g. ber ;£Öcg red)t£, the way to the right. 

§ 314. IL It is generally placed before an adjective which 
it qualines ; e. g. febr Übel, very ill, gatt} neu, quite new. 

§ 315. III. It cannot, as in English, come between the 
nominative and the verb, unless the verb be removed to the 
end of the sentence or clause (§ 286.) ; e. g. wir Itebeu tf)lt 
fo fefyr, we love him so much, ba tt>tr tbn fo febr lieben, since 
we love him so much.* 

§ 316. IV. When the verb governs but one case, the ad- 
verb usually follows that case ; when it governs two, it is 
usually placed between them ; e. g. icf) tt>erbe Ü)ttt morgen 
frfjrci&cn, I shall write to him to-morrow, tcf) fcfyrieb Ü)m gef* 
tem einen 33rief, I wrote him a letter yesterday. 

§ 317. V. If the verb is followed by a preposition and a 

* There are a few adverbs which express possibility, such 
as fcHettetcfyt, perbaps, tt)a()rfd)etttltCt), probably, etc. which are 
sometimes sufFered to come between the nominative and the 
verb, even when the verb is not at the end of the sentence ; 
e. g. ba£ Qatö tnetfctcfyt tjt alt, the house is probably old. 



PAKTICLES. POSITION. 103 

Substantive, the adverb is placed between the verb and the 
preposition ; e. g. ei* ging gefd)Winb $U if)m, he went to bim 
quickly. 

§ 318. VI. The adverb can never be properly placed im- 
mediately after the infinitive mode or the past participle. 
Thus we may not say in German, id) tyahc ihm einen S3rtef 
gefcfyrteben gejlern, but geftern einen SBrief gefchneben. 

§ 319. VII. For the sake of emphasis the adverb is some- 
times removed from its natural place ; e. g. heilte l)abe id) 
fca$ $)au$ gefeben, I have seen the house to-day. 

§ 320. VIII. The negative adverb nid)t, not, when it re- 
lates directly to a whole clause or sentence, is usually placed 
after the case or cases governed by the verb ; e. g. wir frf)rie* 
ben Ü)tn ben 23ricf nid)t, we did not write him the letter. If 
the verb be in a Compound tense, the negative occurs imme- 
diately before the participle or infinitive ; Wir Werben e$ if)tn 
nicfjt geben, we shall not give it to him. 

§ 321. IX. If the negative refers exclusively to a particular 
word or words in the clause or sentence, it must be placed 
immediately before the word or words ; e. g. Wir fd)rieben 
nid)t tljm ben S5rtcf r we did not write the letter to him — but 
to some one eise — wir fd)riebcn il)m nid)t ben 23rtef, we did 
not write the letter to him — but something eise. 

§ 322. X. The adverb gcmtg, enough, is almost always 
placed after any word which it qualifies ; e. g. er X]t jllltg ge* 
Itltg, he is young enough, oft genug, often enough. 

§ 323. XI. A preposition is usually placed immediately be-, 
fore the case which it governs ; e. g. id) traf il)lt $lt £>aitfe, I 
found him at home. 

§ 324. XII. The prepositions entgegen, halben, halber, and 
^Itwiber are always put after the cases which they govern ; 
and bnrd), gegenüber, nach, ungeachtet, wegen, 31t, and %u* 
folge, sometimes before and sometimes after. (Comp. §§ 117, 
123, and 126.) 

§ 325. XIII. A preposition and its case may be regarded 



104 PARTICLES. POSITION. 

as equivalent to an adverb. Accordingly, their natural place 
is after tbe object of the verb. Additional stress is given to 
the preposition and its case by placing it before the object ; 
most of all by placing it at the beginning of the sentence. The 
natural construction is as follows : id) habe einen SBrtef ait$ 
Sctttfcfyfanb erhatten, I have received a letter from Germany. 
We may say, with greater emphasis on the preposition and its 
case, tcf) fyabe ang Dentfcrjtanb einen SSrief erhalten, or, with 
an emphasis yet more marked, attg £eittfcf)(attb f)abe id) 
einen SBrief erhalten. 

§ 326. XIV. Tho preposition and its case can never be in- 
serted between the nominative and the verb, unless they relate 
to the nominative alone ; e. g. we cannotsay id) $\l jpanfe 
traf if)n, I found him at home, but we may say, ein after 
9D?ann t>cn achtzig Satyren bettelt bnrch ba$ £orf, 
an old man of fourscore begs about the village. 

§ 327. XV. When an adverb and a preposition with its 
case occur in the same clause, it is almost invariably best that 
the adverb should take precedence, especially when it is a 
word of but one or two syllables; e. g. er rebete oft »Ott 

feinem £anbe, he talked often of his country, ergeht fyente 
ohne mich, he goes to-day without me. 

§ 328. XVI. The position of the Conjunction and Interjec- 
tion in German does not in our opinion require any consider- 
ation at our hands, since in all important respccts their posi- 
tion is analogous to that of the corresponding words in En- 
gl ish. 

Additional Pcculiarities. 

§ 329. I. The negative adverb nicfyt, not, is frequently em- 
ployed vvhere we should consider it superfluous ; e. g. e$ ift 
über einen Donath, fcitbem id) (Sie nidjt gefcfyen tyahe, it 
is more than a month since I have (not) seen you, ttue ftof$ 
frf)ien er It i d) t> how proud did he (not.) appear ! 



PARTICLES. PECULIARITIES. 105 

§ 330. II. It is incorrect to make use of two negatives in 
the same clause ; yet the inaccuracy sometimes occurs, even 
in the best writers. E. g. er barf atfe£ tt>a$ er tann, unb 
ift feinem attbew n t rf) t $ fcfyulbig, he dares to do all he 
can do, and is under no Obligation to no one ( Wieland), nur 
t ein ©e(b \}at fie nicfyt, onlyshe has not no money (Les- 
sing). 

§ 331. III. The adverbs borf), ja, and wofyf are sometimes 
employed in such a way as to seem wholly expletive and use- 
less ; but, in general, careful consideration will show that they 
produce at least some slight shade of influence upon the sense. 
E. g. fage mir eg bocfy, pray, teil it to me, irf) hin ja euer 
greitttb, I am certainly your friend, irf) hahe eg tfym Wol)l 
$el)n 9D?at)f gefaßt, I have told it to him, I should think, ten 
times. 

§ 332. IV. In English the adverb how is often used before 
the infinitive ; e. g. he does not know how to conduct himself. 
The corresponding German word, ttrie, is never used in such 
cases ; e. g. er weiß ftrf) nirf)t $u benehmen» 

§ 333. V. It may be well to note here the distinction be- 
tween the adverbs f)er and hin in point of sense. Both de- 
note motion towards some object ; but fyitt denotes motion 
away from the person who speaks, her towards him. The 
difference is the same as that between the English words 
hither and thither. Thus the Compound verb tyerfommett 
signifies to come hither, and fyutf omntett to arrive there. 

§ 334. VI. Many Compound adverbs are formed by uniting 
prepositions with the simple adverbs ba, fyier, WO* If a pre- 
position beginning with a vowel or- an it be compounded with 
the adverb ba or WO, which words end with a vowel, an r is 
generally inserted between the vowels, for the sake of eu- 
phony. E. g. barattf, thereupon, l)ieraitf, hereupon, Worauf, 
whereupon. 

§ 335. VII. When the same preposition belongs to several 
nouns, it may be only once expressed ; e. g. Wegen meiner 



106 PARTICLES. PECÜLIARITIES. 

Butter, meinet Sßruberö, imb meiner ©cfyroefter, on ac- 
count of my mother, my brother, and my sister. 

§ 336. VIII. A nice distinction is commonly observed in 
German between the conjunctions aber and fonbew, both of 
which may be rendered but in English. The word fonbent 
nearly alvvays denotes a contrariety ; aber properly denotes 
only a limitation or modification. E. g. td) Werbe \\id)t jcer* 
ben, fonbcrn (eben, I shall not die, but live ; er tjt arm, aber 
aufrieben, he is poor, but contented. 

§ 337. IX. The particle (d$ sometimes occurs, improperly, 
before the relative pronoun Welcher, in which case it is a mere 
expletive ; e. g. bie 9D?dnner, atö tx>e(cf)e fyier angekommen, 
jmb, the men who have arrived here.* 

§ 338. X. The particle afö signifies sometimes as and some- 
times than. In English the words ihan and as often oeeur 
together ; but the immediate repetition of al$ in German, to 
correspond with these English words, is inadmissible. E. g. we 
cannot say in German, e$ fommt mir mefyr ai$ eine föabel 
t>or, a l ö a ( ö eine wafyre ©efrf)id)te ; we must say mehr 
ttne and aU roie, 

# There is a vulgär idiom in our own language which ex- 
actly corresponds vvith this which has been pointed out in Ger- 
man ; e. g. I have heard Ignorant people use such language as, 
men as who are rieh are generally proud, and more often such 
as this, he told as how men ought to do good to each other. 



APPENDIX 



APPENDIX 



A. 



Nouns which have two genders and a different signißcation 
in each. 



ber SBattb, the volume, the 

binding ; 
ber kalter, the peasant ; 
ter 23rud), the fracture ; 
ber Q3utf et, the hump-back ; 
ber VßüUe, the male of a cow ; 
ber SSitnb, the league ; 
ber (£r6e, the heir ; 
ber ©etgcf, the hostage ; 
ber @eftf)og, the tax ; 
bte ©tft r the gift ; 
ber ftaft, the clasp ; 
ber X>aT$ f a mountain in Ger- 

many; 
ber £etbe r the pagan ; 
ber $aper r the privateer ; 

ber $tefer, thejaw; 
ber ^ltnbe, the customer ; 
ber Leiter, the guide ; 
ber Mangel, the want ; 

bte tylavt, the boundary ; 
ber Üftarfd), the march ; 
10 



ba£ 55anb, the ribbon. 

ba$ Gatter, the cage. 
ba$ 33ritrf), the marsh. 
bte SSltcfet, the knob. 
bte S3tttte, the Pope's bull. 
bci3 SSunb, the bündle. 
t)Ci$ (5 rbe, the inheritance. 
bte Ötetgef, the scourge. 
baö ©efdjoß, the missile. 
ba$ ®ift, the poison. 
bte J£flft, the arrest. 
ba$ $2 ax b tne rosm * 

bte ftetbe, the heath. 

bte Äaper, the caper, a veg- 

etable. 
bte tiefer, the pine. 
bte Ämtbe, the knowledge. 
bte Setter, the ladder. 
bte fanget, the mangle. 
ba$ Wlavf, the marrow. 

bte 9D?arfrf), the bog. 



110 



AfPENDIX. 



ber 9J?ajt, the mast (of a ship) ; 
ber 9ftenfd), the man ; 
ber Keffer, the measurer ; 
ber 9#ofyr, the negro ; 
ber £>rt, the place ; 

ber tyad, the bündle ; 

ber 9?eÜ3, the rice ; 

ber ©tfjtfb, the shield ; 

ber (5rf)ttm(ft, the bombast ; 

ber (See, the lake ; 

ber (Stift, the style, the pin ; 

ber £()or, the fool ; 
ber Serbienjt, gain ; 



bte Wla% the mast (of trees.) 
ba3 9J?enfrf), the wench. 
ba$ Keffer, the knife. 
ba^ 9M)r, the bog. 
b(t$ £>rt, a certain coin and a 

certain measure. 
bctö ^atf, the rabble. 
t>a$ 9?eig, the twig. 
baö (Scfytfb, the sign, 
bte <2d)ttmfft, the tumour. 
bte ©ee, the sea. 
ka$ (Stift, the foundation. 
£>(l$ £f)0r, the gate. 

ba£ üBerbiettjt, merit. 



Nowts ivhich have more than one form in the plural and often 
a different signification for each. 

ba$ 25anb, bte 23anbe, the ties, bte $änber,the ribbons. 

bte Sßaitf, bte Sßänfe, the benches, bte SSanfen, the banks. 

t)d$ SBctt, bte 33ette, the beds, bte Letten, the bedding. 

ba$ SBmtb, bte SSimbe, the bundles, bte 95Ünbc (same sense). 

ba3 Dilta,, bie Dino^, the things, bte Dütger(same sense). 

ber Dorn, bte Dornen, the thorns, bie Dörner( same sense). 
ba$ @efid)t, bte ®eftd)te,the visions, bte $efirf)tcr, the faces. 
ber Qcdm, bte S^atme, the stalks, bte Jahnen, the stalks, 

collectively. 

ba$ ?anb, bte £anbe, the districts, bie?änber,thecountries. 

ba3 yjlaty, bte 9D?a{)(e, the tokens, bte TOfyter, the meals. 

ber Drt, bte £)rte, the places, bte Drter, (same sense). 

bte ©an, bte ©äne, the sows, bte ©anen,(same sense). 

ba3 Znd), bte £nd)e, cloths, bte £nd)er,(same sense). 

bau 2Öort, bte 2Borte, speech, bte Wörter, words. 



APPENDIX. 111 



c. 



Nouns which are defective in their declension, being used only 
in certain peculiar phrases. 

b t e 2Jtf)t, attention. This word is generally used without 
the article, and scarce ever except with the verbs falten, 
t qcbeu, haben, (aflfen, and neunten. I am not aware that 
it ever occurs except in the dative or accusative case Singu- 
lar. E. g. 3(rf)t auf etmö haben, etwaö in 2(rf)t nehmen, 
außer $td)t (aflfen, etc. 

ber S3ebad)t, consideration. This word does not coramon- 
ly take the article, and is used only in some adverbial phra- 
ses ; always, I believe, in the dative or accusative singular. 
E. g. mit SSebacfyt, 25ebarf)t neunten, etc. 

b e r 23 e t r a d) t, consideration. Used only, I believe, in the 
expression, in attem 23etrad)t 

b e r 33 r a It 3, riot. Used only in the dative singular ; e. g. 
im ©aufe nnb Sßraufe (eben* 

ba3 (£ntgelb, recompense. Used only in the accusative 
case singular, with the preposition ot)tte* 

ber § a I f rf), deceit. Seidom or never used except in the 
same way as the preceding word. 

ber 5 lt 9r right. Used only in the dative or accusative case 
singular. E. g. mit gutem gnge, gug $u etmaö fyaben. 

bic ? e b ^ e i t, life-time. Used only in the dative plural, with 
the preposition bei)* E. g. bei) imfer it ?eb^eiten* 

ber <&CiU$, riot. Same as ber 93rait3 above ; which see. 

ber (2rf)tt3ang, swinging motion. Used only in the dative 
and accusative singular. E. g. im (Scfymaitge fet)lt, heil 
©ehmang bringen, 

b i e © t a 1 1, place. Used only in the dative and accusative 

cases. E. g. (Btatt fhtben, l)aben, etc. ; an feiner (Statt. 



112 



APPENDIX. 



D. 



Adjectives which govern the Genitive. 



bebürfttg, in want of. 
befftffett, studious of. 
bertötfyigt, in want of. 
bettmßt, conscious. 
emgebenf, mindfuL 
fähig, capable. 
frot), glad. 
gett>d)r, aware. 
CjCttKirttg, expecting. 
getinß, certain. 
gewohnt, accustomed. 
fyabfyaft, in possession, 
funbtg, skilled. 
lo$, free from. 
mäcfytig, in possession. 
mitbe, tired. 
quitt, rid of. 



fatt, tired of. 

frfmlbtg, guilty. 

tfyeittjaft or ttyeiffyaftig, par- 

taking of. 
Meberbritflfig, tired with. 
uneingebenf, unmindful. 
Unfähig, incapable. 
ttltgett)ig, uncertain. 
Ungewohnt, unaccustomed. 
«ttflUtbig, unacquainted. 
imroertf), undeserving. 
itltWÜrbig, unworthy. 
Derbäcfyttg, suspected. 
fcerlufrtg, having lost. 
*>ofl, füll. 

tt>ertfy, worth or worthy. 
tDÜrbig, worthy. 



E. 

Verbs which govern the Genitive. 
achten, to mind. entMöffen, to strip. 



anfragen, to accuse. 
bebi'trfett, to be in need of. 
begehren, to desire. 
belehren, to inform, 
berauben, to rob. 
befcfynlbigen, to accuse. 
be$nd)ttgen, to Charge with. 

entbehren, to want. 



entfabeit, to disburden. 

entfaflfen, to dismiss. 

entlaften, to disburden. 

entlebtgen, to acquit. 
entfe^en, to displace. 
ewxifynen, to mention. 
gebenfen, to mention. 
genießen, to enjoy. 



APPENDIX. 



113 



gewähren, to grant. 
barmt, to wait. 
ladjen, to laugh. 
mißbrancfyert, to misemploy. 
pflegen, to give one's seif up. 
frf)0nen, to spare, 
fpotteit, to deride. 
neberfnfyren, to convict. 
neberfyeben, to disburden. 



neber weifen, to convict. 
neber^engen, to convince. 
üerfefyten, to miss. 
ttergeffen, to forget. 
Derftcfyent, to assure. 
tt er weifen, to banish. 
warten, to wait for, and 

tend to. 
wnrbigen, to favor.* 



at- 



F. 

Prepositions which govern tlie, Genitive. 



mittefjt, by means of. 
um*ttntfen, for the sake of.J 

ungeachtet or obngeacfytet, 

notwithstanding. 
UttWett or obltWcit, not far 

from. 
»er mitteljt, by means of. 
Vermöge, by reason of. 
Wäbrenb, during. 
Wegen, on aecount of.J 



anflatt, instead. 

befage, aecording to. 

bteflfeit$, on this side of. 

t)Cllb, only used in the Com- 
pounds, angerbatb, out of 
innerhalb, within, etc. etc. 

halben or balber, on aecount 

oft 
jenfeit^, on the other side of. 
fraft, by virtue of. 
((Ulf, aecording to. 

* Most reflexive verbs require the genitive. E. g. er bc^ 
btente jTd) ber %eit. The genitive is used also with fet)rt and 

werben, in some such phrases as, ber Meinung femt, $Bitfen3 
femt, etc. 

f falben isused when the noun has an article ora pronoun 
before it ; othervvise, \)albcv. E. g. be3 griebenö IjCtlben, 
ty&UXÖ balber* falben is often connected with the genitive 
of a personal pronoun, and in that case the pronoun and the 
preposition are united in one vvord, and the r of the pronoun 
is changed into t, or eise a t is added to the pronoun ; e. g. 

fetnetbalben, nnfertfyatben, etc. 

X SCBegeit and Witten, like f)alben, are joined with tlie geni- 



114 



APPENDIX. 



The following prepositions sometimes govern the dative and 
sometimes another case : (1.) ^Ufc^e, according to, governs 
the geniüve if it precedes the noun, but the dative if it follows 
it; (2.) fancj$, along, is sometimes put with the genitive, 
though usually with the dative; (3.) ofyne, without, some- 
times with the genitive, though usually with the accusative. 



G. 

Cases ofthe Genitive absolute. 
The following are some of the most common cases of the 
genitive absolute : 



be$ ^IbenbÖ, in the evening. 
feinet WXex$ $efyn %al)v, ten 

years of age. 

meinet 23ebnnfen3, in my 

opinion. 
fyier ijt meinet 33(ei6en3 nirf)t> 

I cannot stay here. 
alle 3 @rnfteö, in all serious- 

ness. 
etntrcteubcit %alle$, the case 

happening. 

ftcbenben $n$e$, immedi- 

ately. 

feiner (Geburt ein £entfd)er, 

by birth a German. 
feinet ®cfrf)ted)t$ ein (£bek 
mann, of noble lineage. 



fofgenber @ejfa(r, in the fol- 
lowing manner. 
feinet £anbroerf 3 ein ©cfyitet* 

ber, by trade a tailor. 

ber Hoffnung leben, to live in 

hope. 
#unger$ fter6en, to die of 

hunger. 
inermaljl beg %af)ve$, four 

times a year. 
einiger haften, in some mea- 

sure. 
gett)tffer 5D?agen, in a certain 

degree.* 
ber 2D?cmtui(j feptt, to be of 

opinion. 
be3 tyflitta$$, at noon. 



tive ofthe personal pronouns so as to make one word with 
them, the sanfte change being tnade in the pronouns as in the 

case of t)a(6en ; e. g. meinetwegen, nnfcrtwitfen, etc. 

# There are several other expressions in which Raffen oc- 
curs in the same way. 



APPENDIX. 



115 



beS 9Jftotttag3, on Monday. 
be£ Borgens, in the morning. 
beS ytad)t$, at night. 
aller Drte, in all places. 
btefeö DrteS, in this place, 
gehörigen DrteS, in a suitable 

place, 
unfcerriefyterer ©ad)e,the mat- 

ter not accomplished. 
eiligen <&djxitte$, with rapid 

Steps. 
beS ©Oltltabenb^on Saturday. 



eitteS £age£, on a day. 
fyeutigeS £ageS, on this day. 
feinet %ty\{$, on his part. 
£obe£ femi, to die. 
eines fcf)mer$tirf)en £obeS 

fterben, to die a painful 

death. 
gerabeS 2öegeS, straightway, 

instantly. 
^BtllenS fet)tt r to intend. 
beS ßutranenS (eben, to live 

in confidence. 



H. 



Adjectives wldch govern the Dative. 



abgeneigt, disaffected. 

abfyolb, disaffected. 

abtrünnig, apostatizing. 

äl)nlirf), similar. 

angeboren, innate. 

angeerbt, hereditary. 

angemeffen, suitable. 
angenebm, agreeable. 
CUtgfHid), anxious. 
attftänbig, becoming. 
anftößtg, offensive, 
ärgerlich, irksome. 
bange, frightened. 

bebenftirf), doubtful. 
begreiflief), intelligible. 
befyagltrf), comfortable. 
befyülflicf), serviceable. 



befannt, known. 
bequem, convenient. 
befd)tt>erlicf), troublesome. 
beengt, known. 

banfbar, grateful. 
beittlid), piain. 
bienlicfy, serviceable» 
bienjtbar, bound. 

bnnfel, obscure. 
eigen, peculiar. 

eigentfyümlirf), peculiar. 
einleurf)tenb, evident, 
einträglich, advantageous. 
eMfyaft, loathsome. 
empftnblid), sensible, 
entbefyrlitf), superfluous. 
ergeben, devoted. 



116 



APPENDIX. 



erge^licb, delightful. 
ergiebig, exuberant. 
erinnernd), remembered. 
erftärbar, explicable. 
erlaubt, permitted. 
erfpriegtieb, condueive. 
erwünfd)t, desired. 
fett, venal. 
fremb, foreign. 
fühlbar, perceptible. 
furd)tbar, formidable. 
fürd)terfid), terrible. 
gebeibftd), advantageous. 
gefäbrlid), dangerous. 
gefällig, agreeable. 

gegenwärtig, present. 
gebdflftg, odious. 
geborfam, obedient. 
geläufig, obvious. 
gelegen, convenient. 
gemäß, suitable. 
geneigt, inclined. 
gefunb, wholesome. 
getreu, faithful. 
gewad)fen, sufficient. 
gewogen, favorable. 
glaublid), credible. 
gleid), like. 
günftig, favorable. 
gut, good. 

fyetlfam, wholesome. 
bei$, hot. 

binberlid), troublesome. 
l)olb, afFectionate. 



flar, clear. 
fojlbar, costly. 
läcberlid), laughable. 
läfrig, troublesome. 
leid)t, easy. 
lieb, dear. 
möglid), possible. 
uacf)tbetttg, prejudicial. 
nahe, near. 
UÖt big, necessary. 
UÜ|ltd), useful. 
ratbfam, advantageous. 
recfyt, right. 

rübmltd), commendable. 
fauer, sour, painful. 
fd)äbfidi, hurtful. 
fd)änb(id), disgraceful. 
fcbäJSbar, estimable. 
fd)tmpfltcb, shameful. 
fdjmeicfyelhafr, flattering. 
fcbmeqbaft, painful. 
fd)rcd(id), terrible. 
fd)ltfbig, indebted. 
fd)vt>cr, difficult. 
treu, true. 

tröfHtd), comfortable. 
Über, ill. 

Überflügig, superfluous. 
UUau^fteb(id), intolerable. 
unerträglich, intolerable. 
unerwartet, unexpected. 
Unlieb(id), disagreeable. 
UUtterboflFt, unhoped. 
öerbmbtid), obligatory. 



APPENDIX. 



117 



tterbächtig, suspicious. 
fcerberblich, pernicious. 
tterbrießlicl), grievous. 
vergönnt, permitted. 
verhaßt, hated. 
tterftänblicf), intelligible. 
ttortbeilfyaft, advantageous. 



rcabrfcrjeütlicf), probable. 

Vt>ertt), valuable, dear. 
tt>trf)ttg, important. 
ttnberlirf), disagreeable. 
roillfommen, welcome. 

zuträglich, useful. 
zweifelhaft, doubtful. 



I. 
(1.) Neuter Verls which govern the Dative. 



angehören, to belong to. 
anhangen, to adhere to. 
anliegen, to apply to. 
ausweichen, to give way. 
begegnen, to meet. 
befommen, to suit. 
beöorjreben, to impend. 
bepfalTen, to agree. 
bekommen, to come near. 
bet)pfltd)ten, to assent. 
begeben, to assist. 
bleiben, to remain. 
banfen, to thank. 
bienen, to serve. 
brol)en, to threaten. 
einfallen, to occur. 
eingehen, to enter the mind. 
einf ommen, to enter the mind, 
einfeuchten, to appear. 
entfliehen, to escape. 
entgehen, to escape. 
entfprecfyen, to correspond. 



fllicf)en, to curse. 
folgen, to follow. 
fröhtten, to serve without pay. 
gebühren, to be due. 
gebeihen, to sueeeed. 
gefallen, to please. 
gehorchen, to obey. 
gehören, to belong. 
gelingen, to sueeeed. 
geratben, to sueeeed. 
geziemen, to befit. 
glauben, to believe. 
gleichen, to resemble. 
helfen, to help. 
hltlbigen, to do homage. 
leuchten, to be evident, 
liebfofen, to caress. 
lohnen, to reward, 
nachahmen, to Imitate, 
nü^en, to be useful. 
obliegen, to apply. 
rathen, to advise, 



118 



APPENDIX. 



fcfyaben, to hurt, 
fcfycütcn, to appear. 

fcfymetcfyeln, to flauer. 
jteuern, to check. 
tro^Ctt, to defy. 
unterliegen, to yield. 



webren, to oppose. 
weichen, to yield. 
tt>ibcrjtef)en, to resist. 
tt>obttt>olteil, to wish well. 
$ufatfen, to fall to. 
$ltf)öreit, to listen to. 



Also, other Compounds with eilt and $U* 

(2.) Active verbs which may govern the dative ofaperson and 
at the samt timt the aecusative of a thing. 



abbitten, to deprecate. 
abferbem, to demand of. 
abfaufen, to buy of. 
abratben, to dissuade. 

abfcrjtagen, to refuse. 
abfpred)en, to deny, to sen- 

tence. 
abgingen, to force from. 
anbietben, to ofTer. 
anbeuten, to signify. 
aitbtrf)teit, to impute falsely. 
anratfyen, to advise. 
antworten, to answer. 
anzeigen, to announce. 
bafyuen, to clear. 
befebteu, to command. 
berieten, to inform, 
beibringen, to impart. 
beilegen, to attribute. 
be^meffett, to ascribe. 
begabten, to pay. 
btetben, to öfter, 
bergen, to lend. 



bringen, to bring, 
entreißen, to snatch away. 
entheben, to take away. 
erfaffen, to remit. 
ertauben, to permit. 
errtnebern, to rejoin. 
er^äblen, to relate. 
geben, to give. 
gebietben, to command. 
geloben, to vow. 
gcjtatteit, to allow. 
glauben, to believe. 
gönnen, to wish. 
ftageit, to complain. 
fojten, to cost. 
leiben, to lend. 
f cifteit, to execute. 
tiefem, to fumish. 
nehmen, to take. 
fagen, to say. 
febreibeu, to write. 
t)erurfad)en, to cause. 
ttnberratfyen, to dissuade. 



Also, other Compounds with an, bet), eitt, and vmber. 



APPENDIX. 



119 



(3.) Impersonal verbs 
C$ aaltet, to forbode. 
e$ begegnet, it happens. 
e3 bebagt, it pleases. 
e$ befommt, to get. 
eö beliebt, it pleases. 
e$ bäncfyt, it seems. 
e$ bünft, it seems. 
e$ einfallt, it occurs. 
e$ efelt, it disgusts. 
eg entfallt, to fall from. 
e£ entgeht, it escapes. 
e3 fefylt, there wants. 
eg gebrid)t, there wants. 
cö gebührt, it is suitable. 
e£ gebetet, it succeeds. 
e$ gelingt, it succeeds. 
Cg genügt, it satisfies. 

e3 gerät!), it results. 



which govern the Dative. 
e£ gefd)ier)t, it happens. 
e$ geziemt, it becomes. 
e3 gilt, it concerns. 
e£ glücft, it succeeds. 
eö granet, it irks. 
ed r)ilft, it is of use. 
e£ foftet, it costs. 
e$ mangelt, there wants. 
C$ nü^t, it profits. 
e3 oblieget, it is duty. 
e3 fdjanbert, to shudder. 
e£ fcfyroinbelt, to be giddy. 
e3 trältmt, to dream. 
CO r)erfd)lägt, it makes a dif- 

ference. 
e£ Derfommt, it occurs. 
eö giemt, it becomes. 



J. 

(1.) Prepositions which govern ihe Dative. 
au$, out of. nebjr, with. 

an$er, out of, besides, without. 
bei), by, near. 
entgegen, against, towards. 
gegenüber, opposite. 
fang6, along. 
mit, with. 

nad), after, to, according to. 
nätf)jr, immediately upon. 



ob, on, over. 

fammt, with. 

feit, since. 

rjOn, from, of, by. 

r)0t, before. 

$lt, to, at, by, on, in. 

$Uttärf)flt, next to. 

^nroiber, against.* 



* In addition to these, infolge, according to, governs the da- 
< ive when it follows the noun, (but otherwise the genitive) ; and 



120 APPENDIX. 

(2.) Prepositions which govern the Dative or Accusative. 

an, at, in, upon, to. Über, over, above. 

auf, in, into, upon. Unter, among, under. 

hinter, behind. fcor, before. 

in, in, into. $tt>tfd)ett, between. 
neben, next to. 

There is a very simple general rule for determining wheth- 
er, in a particular instance, the dative or the accusative case 
must be used with one of these prepositions ; viz. that, if the 
preposition denotes rest, or even motion, in a place or condi- 
tion, the dative is requisite, but, if it denotes motion to a place 
or condition, we must employ the accusative. E. g. ba3 
S5urf) Hegt auf beut ©tltfyfe, the book lies on the seat ; but, 
id) fe£e mid) auf ten (5t\ti)l, I place myself on the seat: in 
ber (stabt tjt ein großem geuer, there is a g reat fire in tne 
city ; but, er gef)t in bie ©tabt, he goes into the city. There 
is a very nice distinction, (still strictly accordant with the rule 
which has been given,) between the following examples : er 
ging $ttrifd)e« bir UUb mir, he walked between thee and me ; 
er brängte jfdj $wifd)en btd) nnb mid), he thrust himself be- 
tween thee and me. 

(3.) Prepositions which govern the Accusative. 
bltrd), through. cl)Ue, without. 

cutlang, along. fonber, without. 

für, for. um, about. 

gegen (contracted gen), a- nnber, against. 

gainst, opposite, towards. 

Ohne, without, which usually governs the accusative, and some- 
times the genitive, governs the dative likewise in one expres- 
sion, ct)Ue bem, besides this or that.— See Appendix F, closing 
paragraph. 






APPENDIX. 



121 



K. 

Conjunctions which, wJien they precede the Verb, cause the 
Nominative tofollow the Verb.. 



CttfiV so, thus, 
Ciußerbem, moreover. 
ba, then. 

bat)er, thence, therefore. 
bann, then. 

baraitf, thereupon. 
fcarum, therefore. 
bemnad), consequently. 
"bcnitccf), notwithstanding. 
be^g(e!d]Cit, likewise. 
bcöhaib, be^batben, for that 

reason. 
fceöwegen, on that account. 
$>od), yet, still.* 
erfit, nrst. 
ferner, moreover. 
folgüd), consequently. 



gtcid)tt>0^f, nevertheless. 
binqegen, on the contrary. 
Ütbejfett, meanwhile. 
ingtetdbert, in like manner. 
jcbcd), notwithstanding. 
je 1$!", now. 
taum, scarcely. 
lllttbut, consequently. 
Itodj, yet, nor- 
mt!!, now. 
fc, so, and sometimes exple- 

tive- 
feuad), aecordingly. 
fbltft, otherwise, eise. 
tfyeSB, partly. 
Überbte3 r besides. 
übrigen^, as for the rest. 



Moreover, when the conjunctions, attrf), also, CUtrüebet, 
either, rüebcr, neither, and £n)ar, incleed, oeeur at the begin- 
ning of a clause or sentence, it is admissible to place the nom- 
inative after the verb, in which case there is some emphasis 
on the verb. 

* This.conjunction does not always require the nominative 
to be placed alter the verb which it precedes. 



11 



122 



APPENDIX. 



L. 

German Numerais. 



Cardinal. 

(ii\X or eüt^, one. 
3wei) r two. 
Drei), three. 
SSter, four. 
gültf, five. 
<3ed)g, six. 
©teben, seven. 
5td)t, eight. 
Dieun, nine. 
3el)en or ge^n, ten. 
Grff or etff, eleven. 

3tt>6(f, twelve. 
Drei)$et)n, thirteen. 
$ter$el)U, fourteen. 

gimfoefytt orfünftefyn, fifteen. 

(Secr^efyn, sixteen. 
(siebente fyn or fteb^etyn, sev- 

enteen. 
2fdf)t$ef)tt, eighteen. 
^Jteun^C^tt, nineteen. 

3watt$tg, twenty. 
(£\\\ unb ^man^g, one and 
twenty. 

3wei) unb ^wan^tg, two and 

twenty, etc. 
Dret)jTg, thirty. 



Ordinal. 

Der erfre, the first. 
Der $tt>ei)te, the second. 
Der brttte, the third. 
Der merre, the fourth. 
Der fünfte, the fifth. 
Der fecfyfte, the sixth. 
Der jTebente, the seventh. 
Der adjte, the eighth. 
Der neunte, the ninth. 
Der geinte, the tenth. 
Der elfte or etffte, the elev- 

enth. 
Der puffte, the twelfth. 
Der bret^ebnte^he thirteenth. 
Der tuerjefynte, the four- 

teenth. 
Der funftefntre or fünftebnre, 

the fifteenth. 
Der fecr^etynte, the sixteenth. 
Der (Tebenjetynte or fTeb$ef)nte 

the seventeenth. 
Der ac^t^e^nte^heeighteenth. 
Der neun$ef)nte, the nine- 

teenth. 
Der $tt>an$tgfre,the twentieth. 
Der ein unb ^an^tgjte, the 

one and twentieth. 
Der $n>et) unb jwan^gjle, the 

two and twentieth, etc. 
Der bretjffgfk, the thirtieth. 



APPENDIX. 



123 



Cardinal. 

($Üt uttt) brepjuj, thirty-one, 

etc. 
SSieqtg, forty, etc. 
gunfoig or fimßtg, fifty, etc. 

©erf)$tg, sixty, etc. 

(5ieben$ig or peb$tg, seventy, 
etc. * 

2Jd)t$tg, eighty, etc. 

^eim^tg, ninety, etc. 

Öunfcert, a hundred. 

£unbert mtb ein or etn£, a 
hundred and one. 

jpunbert unb ^ttet), a hundred 
and two, etc. 

3tt>et) fyunbert, two hundred, 
etc. 

gctitfenb, a thousand. 

3efw taufenb, ten thousand. 

(gute ^Mü'on, one million. 

3«>ei) Millionen, two millions. 

X)rei) ÜEitftoneit, three mil- 
lions, etc. 

(£m taufenb ad)t fyunbert mtb 
adjt unb breiig, 1838. 



Ordinal. 

£>er ein nnb brei)ftc$fte, the 

one and thirtieth, etc. 
£er Dieqigjle, the fortieth. 
£>er fünfte or fünfgtgfte, 

the fiftieth. 
X)CX ferf)$igjte, the sixtieth. 
£)er ftefeengtgjte or jtebgtgfte, 

the seventieth. 
£er ac^tgtgfle, the eightieth. 
£er neun jigfle, the ninetieth. 
£er tjunbcrtpe, the hun- 

dredth. 

£er jtt»u ftunbertjle, the two 

hundredth. 
£>er brco fyunbertftc, the three 

hundredth, etc. 
<£er taufenbjle, the thou- 

sandth. 
£>er gn>et> taufenbfte, the two 

thousand th. 
£er breö taufcnbjre, the three 

thousandth, etc. 



Ohservations on the Cardinal and Ordinal Numbers. 

§ I. The cardinal numbers are, with a few exceptions 
which will immediately be mentioned, entirely indeclinable. 

§ IL (£in, one, before a Substantive, and not preceded by 
the definite articleorby a possessive pronoun, is declined like 
the indefinite article. Standing alone, it is declined accord- 
ing to the first declension of adjectives, einer, eine, einetf, 



124 APPENDIX. 

etc. Preceded by the definite article, it is declined according 
to the second declension of adjectives, ber eine, btc eine, bct$ 
Ctrte, etc. Preceded by a possessive pronoun, it is declined 
according to the third declension of adjectives, mein einer, 
meine eine, mein eincd, etc.* 

§ III. %Y0Ct) and brei) make £tt)Cfr)er and breijer in the gen- 
itive, ^tt)ei)en and brcnen in the dative. %XOQX), moreover, 
formerly exhibited different admissible forms for the three 
genders vvhen it was connected with a noun ; e. g. £tt>een 
Jänner, $wo granen, jmet) $inber, two men, two women, 
two children. At present, however, $tt>ei) is usually employ- 
ed with nouns of all genders. 

§ IV. Other cardinal numbers: take the termination eit to 
form a dative ; e. g. anfallen Üteren rnecfjen, toereep oii 
all fours. 

§ V. The ordinal numbers are treated in all respects as 
adjectives. 

§ VI. The units of Compound numbers are always placed 
before the tens ; and, as in English,only the last of the num- 
bers compounded ever takes the termination of an ordinal. 
E. g. ber tanfenb acfyt rmnbert nnb acfyt nnb brewlgfle, the 
eighteen hundred and thirty-eighth, 

Observations on other Germern Numerais. 

§ I. Fractional parts of a unit (except one half, halft, ) are 
expressed by combining the word Xljeil, part, with the ordinal 
numbers ; e. g. ba3 £)rittf)eil, the third part, baß Siertfyeit, 
the quarter, etc. These Compound words are frequently writ- 
ten with a contraction of £t)eil into tcl \ e. g. ba$ drittel, 
brei) Viertel, etc. 

§ IL The numbers, one and a half, two and a half, etc. are 

* This form of expression is used, though perhaps blamably, 

by good authors. E. g. ba$ ^}>ferb vertrat mein eine3 23cin, 

(Gessner,) the horse broke one of my legs. 



APPENDIX. 125 

expressed in German as follows : aitbertbafö, (for $tt>et)tc* 
halb,) one and a half, brtttefyalD, two and a half, tnertebalb, 
three and a half, etc. It is difficult to understand why these 
peculiar forms are used. Perhaps the nearest possible ap- 
proach to an explanation of them may be, to say that brüte* 
ffdlb, for instance, denotes that two whole units are taken, and 
then half of a third unit ; and so of the rest. 

§ III. In speaking of the tirne of day, the Germans make 
use of another idiom which seems stränge to us, at least at 
first sight ; e. g. hjalb eitt^, half past twelve, balb £tt>ei), half 
past one, halb brci>, half past two, etc. In the other case just 
mentioned, balb was appended to the ordinal numbers ; in this 
it precedes the cardinal numbers. The explanation of this lat- 
ter idiom is not difficult : halb eittä denotes that it is 12 o'clock, 
and halfway on towards one; and so of the rest. This ex- 
planation may be rendered more probable from considering 
such German idioms as, brei) 2Sierte( auf tin$, a quarter of 
one (literally, three quarters towards one), ein ^ßievtei auf breV), 
a quarter past two (literally, one quarter towards three), etc. 

§ IV. The word fad) or fäftta, is united to the cardinal 
numbers to denote what is expressed in English by the sylla- 
ble fold ; e. g. $mt}fad) or $n)ei)fa(ttcj, double or twofold, 
brepfad), einfach, etc. 



M. 

Use of the auxiliaries i)abe\\ and fe*)U with Intransitive 

Verbs. 
§ I. No dennite universal principles can be given as to the 
preference of either of these auxiliaries in connection with in- 
transitive verbs. We shall present catalogues of those verbs 
which take [)aben or fci)U respectively, stating some partial 
principles as preliminary to each catalogue. 

§ II. The auxiliary haben is taken : (a) when change of 
11* 



126 



APPENDIX. 



place is denoted - without specification of the place sought ; 
(b) by intransitive verbs which express sounds (except er* 
fdbattcn, to resound) ; (c) by such intransitive verbs as are 
used reflexively or impersonally. 

Intransitive Verbs which require fyaben as an auxiliary. 
Regulär Verbs. 



äcr^en, to groan. 

e£ aljnbct, to forbode. 

altern, to grow old. 

anseht, to angle. 

an fern, to anchor. 
atfymen, to breathe. 
fid) ha fßen, to fight. 
betten, to bark. 
beten, to pray. 
betteln, to beg alms. 
blinken, to blink, 
blül/eit, to bloom. 

branfcn, to roar. 
brüllen, to low, to roar. 
brummen, to grumble. 
binden, to bail. 

büfeu, to suffer for. 
bauent, to last, to endure. 
bonnern, to thunder. 
bürjleu, to be thirsty, or to 

thirst. 
eifern, to be zealous. 
eilen, to hasten, 
eitern, to suppurate. 
entfagcu, to renounce. 
erben, to inherit. 
faulen, to putrefy. 



festen, to fail. 
flecfeu, to stain. 
flucfyett, to curse. 
ferfd)CU, to inquire. 
fuufetn, to glimmer. 
gäfyneu, to yawn. 
gaufetn, to juggle. 
getreu, to covet. 
girren, to coo. 
grunzen, to grünt, 
banbetn, to trade. 
l)arren, to wait for. 
fyaubtlneren, to trade, to bus- 

tle. 
bauftren, to hawk about. 
fyerfd)CU, to govern. 
fytnfcn, to limp. 
rjordjen, to listen, 
billigem, to hunger. 
büpfett, to leap. 
buften, to cough. 
irren, to err. 
jauchen, to shout. 
falben, to calve. 
t ämpfen, to combat, 
färben, to be penurious. 
f eimen, to shoot out, or bud. 



APPENDIX. 



127 



firreu, to coo, or creak. 
ftajfen, to cleave. 
fragen, to complain. 
fktfd)en, to clap, to applaud. 
Heben, to cleave, or stick. 
ftügeht, to refine. 
fnaefen, to crack. 
fnatfeu, to crack. 
frtarren, to creak. 
f nid ern, to haggle, to act nig- 

gardly. 
fmett, to kneel. 
foltern, to be unruly, to roll, 
frühen, to erw. 
frumett, to trade, 
f raufen, to be ill. 
frebfen, to catch crabs. 
frieden to wage war. 
fad)CU, to laugh. 
lanben, to land. 
(drmen, to make a noise. 
lauern, to watch. 
ffch ia ufern, to run one's seif, 
tauten, to sound. 
leben, to live, 
mangeln, to want. 
meinen, to mean. 
murmeln, to grumble. 
orejefn, to play the hand-organ. 
rafen, to be mad. 
raffen, to rest. 
raupen, to smoke. 
räumen, to remove. 
raufd)en, to rush. 



räitfrern, to clear the throat. 

rechnen, to reckon. 

rechten, to right, to go to law. 

reben, to speak. 

reifen, to ripen. 

e$ reift, there is a white frost. 

reimen, to rhyme. 

ruberu, to row. 
fdumen, to tarry. 
faufen, to whiz. 
fd)aben, to hurt, 
fcfyaftcn, to sound. 
(Td) fd)ämen, to be ashamed. 
fcfyauberu, to shiver. 
fcfjeqen, to joke. 
fcfytmmeut, to mould. 
fd)htcf en, to swallow. 
fcrnnad)ten, to languish. 
fd)mat$en, to smack. 
fcfymcibfen, to scold. 
fdimaufen, to feast. 
fd)mut^en, to soil, to dirty. 
fermäbetn, to bill. 
fd)nard)cn, to snore. 
fd)natteru, to gabble. 
e*> fd)ueiet, it snows. 
fd)rr>ärmen, to swarm. 
fd)tt>iubc(n, to grow giddy. 
fd)Vt>tt^eit, to sweat. 
fegetn, to sail. 
feuften, to sigh. 
forgen, to care. 
fpa^ieren, to take a walk, 
fpielen, to play. 



128 



APPENDIX. 



feuern, to steer a ship. 
flören, to search. 
fitrcmrfjefa, to stumble. 
ftnbiren, to study. 
(türmen, to storm. 
fluten, to butt at. 

fltbcfa, to soil. 

fitmmen, to hum. 
fünbigen, to sin. 

tappen, to grope. 
thronen, to be enthroned. 
toben, to rage. 

tönen, to sound. 



trachten, to endeavor. 
tranern, to mourn. 
trinmpbircn, to triumph. 
tröbefn, to deal in frippery. 
tt>acf)en, to wake, or to be 

awake. 
meinen, to cry. 
mitffabren, to comply. 

giigcn, to despair, to despond. 
$anfen, to quarrel. 
gefeit, to aim. 
^Ottefn, to stagger. 
$nrnen, to be angry. 



Irregulär Verbs. 

ficf> befieifen, to be studious. fer/fafen, to sleep 
fechten, to fight. 



fliegen, to flow. 
frieren, to freeze. 
gefallen, to please. 
gleichen, to resemble. 
fetfett, to scold. 
ffincjen, to sound. 
leiben, to sufTer. 
pfeifen, to whistle. 
reiten, to ride. 
ringen, to wrestle. 
faitfen, to drink hard. 
fdjeütett, to appear. 



fermanben, to snort. 
fd)rei)en, to cry. 
fcfyüetaen, to be silent. 
fcfymtmmett, to swim. 
fchmittbett, to be reduced, to 

dwindle away. 
fcfjttJÖmt, to swear. 
flttnen, to think, to meditate. 
fltjctt, to sit. 
fprecfyeit, to speak 
fpringen, to leap. 
frreiten, to combat, 
verbrechen, to commit a crime. 



§ III. The auxiliary fei)tt is taken : (a) by intransitive 
verbs which denote a mere change of State ; (b) by those 
which denote motion towards some speeified place. 



APPENDIX. 



129 



Intransitive Verls which require fci)it as an aiixiliary. 

Regulär Verbs. 



aufleben, to revive. 
(M^arfcrt, to degenerate. 
begegnen, to meet. 
beharren, to continue. 
cinfehren, to stop at an inn. 
erblajfen, to grow pale, 
erbleichen, to grow pale, 
erbtinben, to grow blind, 
ergrimmen, to grow angry. 
erfatten, to grow cold. 
erftarren, to be chilled. 
erjlaitnen, to be astonished. 

flattern, to flit, to flutter. 
folgen, to follow. 
gelangen, to get, to attain. 



fcbijfen, to sail. 
fegefn, to sail. 
frieren, to take a walk, 
ftetpern, to stumble. 
(Iranben, to Strand, 
ftrancfjcln, to trip. 
jtüqen, to fall, 
ftnt^en, to start. 
traben, to trot. " 
veralten, to grow old. 
verarmen, to grow poor. 
üerf rnmmcn, to grow crooked 
Derlabmcn, to grow lame. 
oerfanern, to grow sour, to 

sour. 
fcerfhtmmen, to grow dumb. 



gett>ot)lten, to be aecustomed. 

bernmirren, to wander about. Derwefen, to decay. 

flettcm, to climb. Dentnlbern, to grow wild 

knben, to land. «erjagen, to despond. 

reifen, to travel. wanbeln, to walk, 

riiefen, to move, tr>anbem, to wander. 

Irregulär Verbs. 



abfallen, to fall down, 
anffteben, to rise. 
bergen, to burst. 
bleiben, to remain. 
erfrieren, to freeze to death. 
erlofcben, to become extinet. 
erftfjallen, to resound. 
erfd)rec!en, to be terrified. 



fabren, to ride in a vehiclo. 
falten, to fall, 
fliegen, to fly, 
fliehen, to flee. 
fliegen, to flow, 
frieren, to freeze. 
gebeiben, to prosper» 
geben, to go, 



130 



APPENDIX. 



geltttgen, to succeed. 
geucfeit, to recover. 
gcratt)cn r to light upon. 

gefcfyefyeit, to happen. 
gleiten, to slide, to slip. 
fttmmen, to climb. 
f ommen, to come. 
frieden, to creep. 
laufen, to run. 
reiten, to ride on horseback. 
rennen, to run. 
rinnen, to leak, to flow, 
fcftcibeit, to depart. 
fd)(eirf)cn, to sneak. 
fcfjmefjen, to melt. 
fcfyretten, to stride. 
fcfyrüetfen, to swell. 



fcfynnmmen, to swim. 

fd)n)inben, to shrink, to dwin- 

dle. 
ftnfcn, to sink, 
fitzen, to sit. 
fprinjjcn, to burst. 

(lcl)en, to stand. 
fretOttt, to mount. 
flerbcn, to die. 
tterMeicfyen, to grow pale, 
»erfahren, to proceed. 
tterlöfcfyen, to become extin- 

guished. 
üerfd)n)inben, to disappear. 
n>ad)fen, to grow. 
weichen, to yield. 
werben, to become. 



§ IV. Some intransitive verbs occur in botb the catalognes 
which we have given. The reason is, that they are some- 
times used with one auxiliary and sometimes with the other. 
The same is true of many verbs beside, according as they 
change their purport, from the context or otherwise. Compare 
the preliminary principles in §§ IL and III, 



APPENDIX. 



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ja 






V 


© 




o 




sO © 




CO 


o 


iS < 




SS 


Xr 


**- Sis 




SO 


o 


$-► CO 




B 


~© 


♦« ♦*© 




«o 



^•S*«" 



5 S 



- B 



o 5äS 

O Ö v . 

© v B « -B 

^> C o j_» . v 

s ä B « 



«-5 es« 



.2 > >* 

-5 EL, o 



B 



SS tsa 
« SS 

fi fi 



3? s s ruf 



«SD. ^ 

B B 

?E 
B B 



• © 

" o © 

«o «MO ♦« 



2 

o 

CO 
SS 

ö 
B 






ä- rs 
55 



SS 






O .5 

■*-> i—i 



I 2 o 2 

O SS v 

> u C 

53 -S iSi- 






B s 



S e ° 

Q o o 2 sT o 

* .5 .TT O ^ « W « 

B S B CQ 5^,*^ 






APPENDIX. 



151 



O. 

Compound Verbs. 

§ I. The following are the principal inseparable particles 
vvith which verbs are compounded : 

after er ur ttermt 

be <je t>cr tterur 

beun hinter serab nriber 

emp miß tternad) ger 
ent 

§ IL The following are the principal separable particles 
with which verbs are compounded. 



ab 

an 

anfyetm 

auf 

au$ 

6et> 

babet) 

bafür 

bar 

barunter 

batton 

battor 

battriber 

baureiferen 



etn 

einher 

fort 

für 

g(eirf) 

fyetm 

her 

berab 

herauf 

beraub 

fyerbei) 

fyerburd) 

herein 

tjemacf) 



herüber 

l)erum 

herunter 

fyerttor 

|erg« 

bin 

hinab 

binan 

fymauf 

fyinauö 

hinüber 

tjinsu 

innen 

lo$ 



mit 

nad) 

nieber 

ob 

überein 

t)or 

fcoran 

fcorauS 

öerbet) 

vorüber 

weg 

$ufammen 
äunriber 



§ III. The particles burrf), über, um, unter, ttott, and n)ie* 
ber are sometimes separable from the verb with which they 
are compounded, and sometimes inseparable. The first four 
are separable when the verb is used intransitively, and insep- 
arable when it is used transitively ; ttrieber is separable when 
the verb is used properly, and inseparable when it is used 



152 APPENDIX, 

ßguralively (e. g. icf) hotte eg ttüeber, I brought it back, but 
icf) ttrieberfyolte bie 2Borte, I repeated the words) ; in regard 
to ttoll usage is, I believe, rather variable and arbitrary.* 

§ IV. The Statement which is presented in §§ 244 — 5 of 
the Grammar concerning the past participle of Compound 
verbs is, in general, correct ; but there are exceptions which 
will now be speeified. 

(a.) Verbs compounded with miß, an inseparable particle, 
usually take the prefix ge in the past participle ; e. g. miß? 
gönnen, to envy, gemißgönnt, envied, mißbenten, to misin- 
terpret, gemißbetttet, misinterpreted.t 

(b.) Many verbs compounded with substantives, adjeetives, 
or adverbs, take the prefix ge in the past participle, though 
the parts of the verb are inseparable ; e. g. antworten, past 
participle geantwortet. 

The following list comprises most of these verbs: 

antworten, to answer. mntbmaßen, to conjeeture. 

argwöhnen, to suspect. qnacffalbern, to play the 

frobtotfen, to exult. quack. 

fritfyftncfen, to breakfast. r ab brechen, to break on the 

fncf)3fcf)tt)än$en, to fawn. wheeL 

fyanbfyaben, to handle. ratfyfcr) lagen, to consult. j 

f)ei)ratl)en, to marry. rechtfertigen, to justify. 

liebängeln, to ogle. urteilen, to judge. 

ttebfofen, to caress. nrfnnben, to testify. 

* N. B. When the particle is separable, it always takes the 
accent ; when it is inseparable, the verb takes it. 

f Still, a few verbs compounded with miß adhere to the rule 
in § 245 of the Grammar ; e. g. mißfallen, to displease, miß? 

leiten, to mislead, mißlingen, to feil, mißratben, to miscarry, 

tttißtterftetyen, to misunderstand. A few, moreover, which 
take ge in the past participle, insert it after ihe particle miß j 
e. g. mißglitcfen, to miscarry, mtßgcglücfet, miscarried, miß? 
arten, to degenerate, mißgeartet, degenerated. 



APPENDIX. 



153 



roetterteucfjtett, to lighten. 
nnttfafyreit, to gratify. 



roafyrfa^ett, to prophesy. 
Wetßagen, to prophesy. 
wetteifern/ to emulate. 

§ V. It is stated in § 245 of the Grammar that inseparable 
particles have no meaning by themselves. This is true as to 
most of them, but not as to all. On Consulting the list of in- 
separable particles, it will be seen that three of them, viz. 
after, fytltter, and rmber, are prepositions which have a dis- 
tinct sense when alone. Moreover, the substantives and ad- 
jectives, which are often inseparably prefixed to verbs, have, 
of course, a distinct sense ; but they are not to be considered 
as particles. 



Adverbs formed from Substantives, Adjectives or Participles, 
by adding the letter $. 



Adverbs. 
abettbtf, in the evening ; 
atterbitt<3$, by all means ; 
Ctttberö, otherwise ; 
bereite, already ; 
bei)berfetr$, on both sides ; 

befottberö, particularly ; 
btettftagö, on Tuesday ; 
bie^falfä, in this case ; 

bte^fettS, on this side ; 

ebenfalls, likewise 5 

eitenbS, hastily ; 



Words from which derived. 
ber 5fbettb, the evening. 
dtf,all, and ba$ £)üt<3,the thing. 
cmber, other. 
bereit, ready. 
bct)be, both, and b\t (gette, the 

side. 
befonber, panioular. 
ber Xuettjfag, Tuesday, 
btefer, this, and ber gatt, the 

case. 
biefer, this, and bte ©eite, the 

side. 
eben, same, and ber $atf, the 

case. 
etlenb, hastening, 



154 APPENDIX. 

Adverbs. Words from which derived. 

fattö, in case ; ber galt, the case. 

flugS, quickly ; ber %U\Q, the flight. 

fofgenbS, subsequently ; folgenb, following. 

jenfettS, on that side ; jener, that, and bte Seite, the 

side. 

f eineSroegeS, in no wise ; fein, no, and ber 90ßeg,the way. 

ItttfS, to the left ; Imf, left. 

mittag, at noon ; ber WlittüQ, noon. 

mttterttadjtS, at midnight ; bte TOtternacfjt, midnight 

montags, on Monday ; ber Montag, Monday. 

morgen^, in the morning ; ber borgen, the morning. 

nacfygefyenbS, subsequently ; nadjgefyenb, following. 
JtarfjmtttagS, in the afternoon ; ber 9cadf)mittag, the afternoon. 

Xiad)t^, in the night ; bte 9tarf)t, the night. 

öfterS, often; Öfter, frequent. 

rerf)tS, to the right ; recfyt, right. 

ftetS, constantly ; (let, constant. 

ftracfS, straightway ; ftratf, straight. 

DormtttagS, in the forenoon ; ber SSormtttag, the forenoon. 

N. B. There are other adverbial Compounds of bte ©ette 
and ber $all, similar to those given above. Other days in 
the week, also, besides those abovementioned, are used ad- 
verbially in the same way. 



Q. 

German Versißcation. 

A few words upon the versification of the Germans may 
not be unsuitable in this place, although a füll development 
of it would require, as it has frequently occupied, at least a 
volume by itself. 

Rhyme and rhythm are the principal artifices of German 
verse, as well as of English. 



APPENDIX. 155 

Rhyme is more difficult, and hence less frequently employ- 
ed, in German than in English, because of the greater variety 
of final syllables in the former than in the latter. The prin- 
ciples of rhyme in German are, at least in all important re- 
spects, the same as in English. 

Rhythm, or measured division of time, is employed with 
rauch greater variety and frequency by German poets than 
by English. All the ancient metres are imitated by the for- 
mer. It may be doubted, however, whether the German pos- 
sesses much more inherent capability of this imitation than 
the English. In my opinion, the more extensive cultivation 
of the Latin and Greek metres in Germany than in England 
is owing mainly to the greater facility of rhyming in English, 
which facility has made it less needful to resort to other ex- 
pedients of verse. 

The technicai development of German prosody must be 
-omitted for want of space. A brief account would be defec- 
tive, and even a füll account would be of little use to one fat 
miliar with the metres of the Greeks and Romans. 



R. 

German Divisions of Time. 

ba$ Safyrtaufenb, a thousand ber gebntar, or 

years. $)0XXl\m$, February. 
baä ^afyrfjimberr, a Century, ber %flax$, March. 
baö Satyr, a year. ber Sfyrtf, April. 
ber 5^at), May. 



ber grüfyftng, spring. ber Sumuö, or 

ber ©ommer, summer. 23rarf)mottatr;, June, 

ber Äerbft, autumn. ber Sultug, or 

ber hinter, winter. £eumonarfj, July. 

ber 2hta,uft, or 



t>er 3<*nuar, January. @rntemonatf), August. 



156 



APPENDIX. 



ber «September, or 

jperbjlmonatfy, September. 
ber Dctober, or 

2öeütmonatf), October. 
ber Diottember, or 

2Bmtermonatb,November. 
ber £ecember, or 

(Sbrtftmonatb, December. 



ber (Sonntag, Sunday. 
ber Montag, Monday. 
ber £tenftag, Tuesday. 
ber ütttttworf), Wednesday. 
ber £onnerjfag, Thursday. 
ber gretjtag, Friday. 
ber (Sonnabenb, Saturday. 



bte 9tacf)t, night. 

bte 9ttttternad)t, midnight. 

ber borgen, moming. 

ber «Sonnenaufgang, sunrise. 

ber £ag, day. 

ber Vormittag, forenoon. 

ber 9D?tttag, noon. 

ber 9?ad)mtttag, aftemoon. 

ber (Sonnenuntergang, sun- 

set. 
ber 2lbenb, evening. 



bte (Stunbe, hour. 
bte Minute, minute. 
bte (Secunbe, second. 



S. 
German Abbreviations. 



a. a. £>. . • 


am angeführten Drte, 


in the place cited. 


Kf. . • • 


Slnno (grifft, . . 


in the year of our 
Lord. 


3l&fd>. . . • 


Sibfdmttt,. . . . 


section. 


Sfotw. • • • 


Antwort, .... 


answer. 


«.«..."';•! 


2tfte$ £e|*ament, . 


Old Testament. 


StofL . . . 


Auflage, .... 


edition. 


2lu*g. ■ • • 


Sluöaafce, .... 


edition. 


au$g. • ■ • 


aufgenommen, . . 


except. 


$ 


S3ucb, S3anb, . . 


book, volume. 


8.<dpv<v4ta> 


, (gapttel, or Kapitel, 


chapter. 


3D. or£>r. . . 


Soctor, .... 


Doctor. 


M- . . • 


ba$ tyetgt, . . . 


that means. 



b, l . 

*fcergL 
®o. . 
gtt>. . 
f. or fofg. 
ff- ■ 
«I- ■ 
göL. 
«r. . 
ge6. 

©r. , 

i. 3. • 
3-fc 

39fr. 
faiferL 
fönigl. 
Ar. . 
L . . 
99c. . 
«m.or50taj 
ÜRfcr. or 
9Rr. 

ob. . 

W. • 
?>♦©♦ 

ftec. 



SRfqjt 



APPENDIX 

ba$ t(t, . . 
bergleicfyen, . 
(Jöangefium, 
@uer, . . . 
fofgenb, (sing-.) 
fofgenbe, (^r.; 
gforin, . . 
gotto, . . . 
grau • . . 
geboren, . . 
geftor6en, 
©rofrfjen, 

heilige (Schrift, 
§err, £errn, 
im 3afyre, 
SefuS Gljrifhtf, 
Jungfer, . . 
faifcrfid), . . 
fönigücf), . . 
Äreugcr, . . 
lieg, . . . 
?Dcagifter, . . 
SOtajefiär, . . 
ÜEanufcript, . 
9ftonjteur, . 
Sfcadrfdjrift, . 
9ieue$ £eftamertt, 
ober, . . . 
Vagina, . . 
Pfennig, . . 
^»oftfcriptum, 
Sftccenfettt, . 
!Kctd)^ SC^aler, 
14 



157 



i. e., viz. 



of this kind. 

Gospel. 

your. 

the following. 

florin. 

folio. 

Lady, wife. 

born. 

died. 

a coin in Germany 

(a groai). 
Holy Scriptures. 
Mr., Sir, Sirs, Messrs. 
in the year. 
Jesus Christ. 
Miss. 
imperial, 
royal. 

a small coin. 
read. 
Master. 
Majesty. 
Manuscript. 
Mr. 

Postscript. 
New Testament, 
or. 
page. 
penny. 
PostScript, 
reviewer, critic. 
rixdollar. 



158 

©. . . 
©. or f. 
feL . . 
©e, 9ttaj, 
@t . . 
Ztyt. . 
u. cu m* 
u- &♦ g. . 
u-f-f- . 
u» f. m* 
iu \. w. 
®. . 

»♦ • 



APPENDIX. 

©ette, page (ofabook). 

ftefye, see, in'de. 

feltg, blessed. 

©eine 5Waje(lät, . His Majesty. 
©dUCt, .... Saint. 
ZfyaUv, .... dollar. 
unb anbete mefyr, . &c, further. 
unb beratetcfyen, . and the like. 
unb fo fort or ferner, \ 
unb fo mefyr, . . > &c. 
unb fo weiter, . ' 

SSerÖ, verse. 

ÖOtt, of, from. 

3ei(e, line. 

Sunt »etfptel, . l forexample . 
Sunt Krempel, . > 



. 



SELECTIONS 



FROM THE 



CLASSIC LITERATURE 



GERMANY; 



VOCABULARY. 



BY 
DAVID FOSDICK, JR. 



ANDOVER: 

PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY GOULD & NEWMAN. 
NEW YORK : 

CORNER OF FULTON AND NASSAU ST8. 

1838. 



SELECTIONS 



GERMAN LITERATURE 



PART I. PROSE. 



Der 5öo(f iutb ber ©chäfcr. 

@in Schäfer 1 hatte burch eine graufame (Seuche feine 
gan$e §erbe tter(oren. 2 2>a^ erfuhr ber $3o(f, nnb tarn, 
feine @onbo(en$ a^nftatten. 3 (Schäfer, fpratf) er, ig e$ 
wahr, 4 ba$ Qid) 1 ein fo graufametf Uugtücf betroffen % 5 
Du bijt um Deine gan$e £crbe gekommen ? 6 Die Hebe, 
fromme, fette fterbe ! Du bauerjl mich, unb td) mochte 
blutige £bräueu meinen, fyabe Danf, 5Keijtcr ^fegrimm, 
öerfefcfe ber <Sd)äfer. 3rf) fehe, Du fyajt ein febr mitkitU 
ge3 $er$. Da3 hat er auch roirfttcjf), fügte be£ ^rf)äferö 
.v>i)(ar hin^u, 7 fo oft er unter bei« Uugfücfe feineö 3?ächjlcn 
fe(bft küct. (Lessing.) 



Die ($an$. 

Die gebern einer ©attö befchämten ben neugebomen 
(Schnee. ©tot$ auf btefe6 btenbenbe ©efchenf ber -ftatur, 
Qianbtc fte eher $u einem ©dfjttxme, a(6 31t bem, »aö fte war, 

1 Grammar, § 25.— 2 § 296.— 3 § 303.— 4 § 152.— 5 § 281. — 
6 VlX blflt etc. ? Jfarf «äöm Zo.9« thij toholeßock ?— 7 § 301. 
14* 



162 SELECTIONS FROM 

geboren $u fejm. (Sie fonberte fiel) son 3bre6gletd)cn ab, 1 
unb fdjwamm eiufam unb majejlätifd) auf bem £etd)e ber* 
um. 1 35alb behüte fte 2 ifyren Jgale, beffen fcerrätberifcher 
$ür$e ffe mit alter üttacfyt abhelfen 3 wollte ; halb fucfyte jTe 
ibm bie prächtige Biegung $u geben, in welcher ber (Sdjwan 
ba£ würbige 2lnfet)en cineg 23ogete beg Apollo l)at. 4 £ed) 
vergebens* ; er war $u fltetf, unb mit aller ihrer Bemühung 
brachte fie e$ nid)t weiter, al3 ba$ fte eine lächerliche ©au$ 
warb, 5 ot)ne ein (Sdjwan 31t werben. 6 (Id.) 



Der (Strauß. 

3e£t will icf) fliegen, 7 rief ber gigautifcf)e (Strauß, 8 unb 
baö gan^e 2Soff ber $ögcl ftonb in ernfter Erwartung um 
üjn öerfammelt, 3e &t will tcft fliegen, rief er nocfjmafytö, 
breitete bie gewaltigen ßittiäjc weit autf, 1 unb fd^oß, gleid) 
einem (Sd)ifiFe, mit aufgcfpannten (segeln, auf bem 53oben 
ba()in, ohne ibu mit einem dritte $u verlieren. 6 

(Sel)et ha ein poetifcfyeö S5ilb jener mtpoettfcfyen $öpfe, 
bie in ben erften Seilen il)rer ungeheuren Oben mit ftcljen 
(schwingen prallen, pd) über ©offen unb (Sterne $u ert)e* 
ben brot)en, unb bem (Staube 9 bocl) immer getreu bleiben. 

(Id.) 



Der (Stier unb ber £irfd). 

din fdjwerfälliger ©tter unb ein flüd)tiger £irfcl) weibe* 
ten auf einer $öiefc ^ufammen. 1 

§irfd), fagte ber (Stier, 8 wenn imö ber £öwe aufallen 
follte, 5 fo lag un$ für Gruten Wlann flehen ; 10 wir wollen 

i Grammar, § 301.— 2 § 108.— 3 § 290.- 4 § 286. ct.— 5 § 286. 

c— 6 § 250. e.— 7 § 249. c. — 8 § 110. 9 § 120. 10 Mt$ für 

^inett 5D^anU (leben, Jefend ourselves valiantly. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 163 

t()rt tapfer abwcifen.— y£a$ mittle mir nicht ^u/ ervtneberte 
ber £irfd) ; 2 bemt warum follte td) mid) mit bem dornen in 
ein ungleichem ($efed)t einladen, 3 ba id) Ü)m fidjrer entlaufen 
rann? (Id.) 



£ e r f u l e $. 

2l(m £erfulem in ben Fimmel aufgenommen warb, 4 
mad)te er feinen ®rn§ unter alten (Göttern ber 3uno 
$uerfL £)er gan$e ^immel unb 3 u n o ernannten barü* 
ber« Seiner getnbtnn, 5 rief man itmt ^u, 1 ' 2 begegnejt 
£u fo fcor^üglid) ? 3a, tfyr fef6fl: r erwieberte § e r f u l e m. 
9cur ifyre Verfolgungen ftnb em, 6 bie.mir $u ben £l)aten ®e* 
legenfyeit gegeben/ womit id) ben £immcl öerbient l)abe. 8 

£)er SDfymp billigte bie Antwort bem neuen Mortem, unb 
3 u n o warb verfbbnt (Id.) 



£>er 5öolf auf bem £obbctte. 

£er 2öolf lag in ben lefeten 3 u 3 cn / «nb fdjicftc einen 
prüfenben S5lid auf fein vergangenem %eben attrücrV 3cf) 
bin freplid) ein ©ünber, fagte er ; aber bod), ^offe id), feiner 
von ben größten. 3d) tyabe S3ofem getban ; aber and) viel 
(3nte$. <£in$mal)l$, erinnere id) mid), tarn mir ein blofen* 
be^ 2amm, welchem (Td) von ber §erbc verirret batte, fo 
nafye, baß id) em gar leid)t bätte würgen fonnen ; 9 unb id) 
tbat i()m nid)tm. 3u eben biefer 3 e it borte id) bie ©pöt* 
tereijen unb (2d)mät)ungen einem 1 Sdjafem, mit ber bewun* 
bemmwürbtgjlen ©letebgültigfeit au, ob id) fcfyeu 10 feine 
fd)ü^enben £unbe $u fürditen batte. 

Unb ba$ allem fann id) bir bezeugen, fiel tbm Jreunb 

1 Gram mar, § 301— 2 § 11G.— 3 § 289.— 4 § 286. c— 5 § 122. 
_6 § ]95 ._7 § 28J.-8 § 286. a._- 9 § 253.- 10 obfd)OU. 



164 SELECTIONS FROM 

gucM, ber ibn $um £obe beretten balf, in3 2Bort ; ! benn 
td) erinnere mid) uod) gar wobt aller Umjtänbc babet). (£3 
war 31t eben ber Seit, alt> Du Dtcf) an bem 25eine fo jammere 
lief) würgtejt, ba3 btr ber gutfyeqige Äramd) bernad) auS 
bem ©rfjfanbe $og. (Id.) 



£er Diabe nnb ber g;ud)$. 

din Wabe trug ein (Stütf vergiftetet gleifd), ba$ ber er* 
$ürnte (Gärtner für bie $at$cn feinet 9iad)bar3 bingewor* 
fen (>atte, in feinen Alanen fort* 2 

Unb eben wollte er e$ auf einer alten @*td)c öcrgefyren, al$ 
jTtf) ein $nd)$ fyerbcö fcfytid), nnb ihm ^urief* ©e*) mir ge* 
feguet, $ogel be£ Supiter !— $ür wen jiebft £u mid) an ? 2 
fragte ber 9?abe. — gür wen td) £>td) anfefye ? erwieberte 
ber ^itd^* 35ijt £it nidjt ber rüftige 2lbler, ber täglid) öon 
ber 9?ed)te beö 3et>$ auf biefe (£td)c tycrabfommt, mid) 2lr* 
men $u fpeifen ? 3 2öarum fcerftelljt Du 4 Qid)? (Bebe 
td) 4 benn nidjt in ber ftegreicfyen Allane bie erflel)te ®abe, 
bie mir £>ein ©ott burd) Dt'd) $u fcfyitfen nod) fortfäbrt ? 

£cr D?abe ernannte, unb freuete (Td) innig, für einen 2lb* 
ler gehalten 31t werben» 3d) muß, bad)te er, ben $nti)$ auö 
biefem ^rrtbume nid)t bringen» — ®rofmtütl)ig burnnt, ließ 
er ibm alfo feinen 9?aub herabfallen, unb flog ftol$ batton. 

Der ^wfyö fing ka$ $leifd) lad)enb auf, 2 nnb frag eö mit 
boshafter greubc. £od) balb fcerfebrtc ftd) bie greube in 
ein fd)meqbafte$ @efül)l ; ba$ ©ift jtng an 2 $u wirfen, 
unb er tterreefte. 

^öd)tct 5 3br dnd) nie etwaö anberä aU @tft erlangen, 
üerbammte (£d)ineid)lcr ! (Id.) 

1 fallen tltö Wort, to Interrupt. 2 Grammar, § 301. 

3 § 250. b.— 4 § 109.— 5 § 260. 







GERMAN LITERATURE. 165 



3eö3 unb ba3 (srfjaf. 

Da3 gcbaf mußte tton allen £bteren Dielet letben. Da 
trat eg öor ben 3 C ^, unb bat, fein (£lenb $tt minbern. 

3et>3 festen willig, nnb fprarf) £tt bem (Erfjafe : 3d> febc 
wobt, mein fremmed öefrfjopf, trfj babe btrf) aii$n webrlo£ ? 
erraffen. SRmt tt>ät)fe r wie irf) bicfem gebier am beftm 
abhelfen fotl. ©oll irf) beinen DJiunb mit frf)rctflirf)en 3«b- 
nen, nnb bcine güße mit prallen ruften ? 

£) nein ! fagte ba$ ©cfyaf ; tcf) will uid)t£ mit ben reißen? 
ben £i)terett gemein baben. 

Dber, fnt)r 3eöö fort, 1 fett trf) ©tft in beuten Spetcfyel fe* 
gen? 

2Jd) ! tterfe^te baS (scfyaf; btc giftigen (Schlangen wer? 
ben ja fo fefyr gefaßt 

9ittn, tva$ fett tcf) benn ? 3^> will £örner auf beute 
(Stirn pflanzen, nnb ©tärfe beinern Warfen geben. 

2lurf) nidjtf gütiger $ater ; irf) fönntc leid)t fr ftößig wer* 
ben, afä ber S3ocf* 

Unb gleicfywobl, fprarf) 3et)3, mußt Du felbft fcfyaben 
fonnen, wenn (Tel) Rubere, bir $u frf)aben, bitten feilen. 

üftüßt' irf) ba£ ! feuftte ba$ (£rf)af- £>, fo laß mirf), gü* 
ttger SSater, wie irf) bin. Denn ba£ Vermögen, frf)aben gu 
fönnen, erwetft, fürrf)te irf), bie ?uft, frf)aben $u wollen ; unb 
eö tji befier, Unrecht leiben, al3 Unrecht tbmt. 

3eö$ fegnete baö fromme 6d)af, unb e6 ttergaß, fcon 
(stunb an, 2 $u f lagern (Id.) 



Der §trfrf) unb ber gurf)3. 
Der §irfrf) fprarf) $u bem $urf)fc : 9fom webe un$ armen 
frf)wärf)eren £l)ieren ! Der £öwe fyat firf) mit beut $}olfe 
tterbunben. 

1 Grammar, § 301.— 2 tfon @tttttb atl,from that hour, imme- 
dialtly. 



166 SELECTIONS FROM 

9Rtt bcm SEBoffc ? fagte ber gnd)^ £a$ mag nod) bin* 
gefyen ! Der £öwe brüllt, ber SDBoff heuft ; xmb fo werbet 
3br @itdj norf) oft bei) Seiten mit ber gfurfjt retten fönnen. 
2tber atebamt, atebann mochte e$ nm nn3 alle gefd)et)en 
femt, 1 wenn e3 bem gewattigen Soweit einfallen fottte, fid) 
mit bem fd)lcid)enben ?ucfjfe $u fccrbinben- (Id.) 



Sic <gtd>e,*'"^ - ' vftM ~ 

Der rafenbc 9iorbwinb hatte feine Stärfe in einer (tür* 
mifdjen 9tad)t an einer erhabenen Qricfye bewtefcm 9fom 
tag ffe geftrccft, nnb eine ?Q?enge niebriger ©tränier lagen 
nnter tfjr $erfd)mettert Grm gudjö, ber feine ©r«6e n?d)t 
weit batton tyatte, fafye ffe bc3 9D?orgen3 baranf* 2öa$ für 
ein 2 SSaum ! rief er* Statte id) bod) nimmermebr gebaut, 3 
ba$ er fo groß gewefen wäre ! 3 (Id.) 



Der Dornftrand), 

2lber fage mir bod), fragte bie $3ctbe ben Dornftrand), 
warum Du nad) ben Kleibern be£ fcorbeijgcbenben 9D?en* 
fdjen fo begierig bift ? 3£a3 willjt Du bamit ? 28a3 fön* 
nen ffe Dir belfen ? — 3^td>tö, fagte ber Dornjtramfy 3d) 
will fte ibm and) nid)t nehmen, id) will fte ifym nnr jer? 
reißen* (Id.) 



Der wttbe Apfelbaum* 

3n bcm boblen Stamme cincö wilben 2lpfelbaum£ befanb 
ftd) ein Schwann dienen, Sie füllten ihn mit ben <&d)äty 

1 ?[)?Öcf)tC etc., iY ?5 very probable all would be over ivith us. — 
5 Gram mar, S 171. note.— 3 <S 259. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 167 

en tbreä £onig£, unb ber 25aum warb fo ftofg barauf, baß 
er alle anbere Säume gegen ftd) tteradjtete. ^)a rief ifym 
ein Gefeit jtotf $u : x @lenber ©rol$ aufgelieferte ©üfftgfeitcn! 
Sft beute grucfyt barum weniger r)crbe ? 3n biefe treibe 
ben £onig hinauf, 1 wenn Du e$ ttermagft, unb bann erjr. 
wirb ber teufet) Qid) fegnen. (Id.) 



Der Papagei) unb bie 9iad)tigalL 

(flenbeö, armfelige^ Ding ! rief ein bunter ^apagei) einer 
9tad)tigatt $u, unb brüjtete jid) ftol$ auf feinen golbenen 
Dfang. — üBeradjte mid), wie Du tt)illft r antwortete p)ilomele, 
Du 6i)l bod) 9tid)tö al6 ein fyirnlofer ^apageö. (Id.) 



Die ft eben $tnbleim 

Mm frühen borgen, alö bte Dämmerung aufging, erhob 
fftf) ein frommer £augt>ater mit feinem $öeibe fcon bem 
nädjtlidjen £ager, unb ffe banften ©ort für t>en neuen £ag 
unb bie ©tärfung beg ©cfyfammerö. Da3 9D?orgenrotr) 
aber jtrafylte in ba$ Kämmerlein, unb (Teben Äinblein lagen 
tu ifyreu Letten unb fcfytiefen. 

T:a fafyen fte bie Äinbleiu an naef) ber 9?eil)e, unb bie 
Butter fprad) : (£$ ftnb ihrer fteben an ber 3abl 2ld) ! eg 
wirb un£ fyart fallen, ffe $u ernähren. — 2llfo feuftte bie 
Butter, benn e£ 2 war eine £bcurung im £aube. 

Der $ater aber lädjelte unb fprad) : Stefye, liegen fte 
nid)t unb fd)lummern alle fteben, unb l)aben rotfyc fangen 
all$umat)l ? unb e£ fleugt and) bon neuem baö 9ftorgenrotr) 
über fte fyer, baß fte nod) fd)öner erfdjeinen un3, wie fteben 
blüfyenbe ^6*?levm ♦ . Butter, baö geiget im 3 ja, baß (5 r, 3 

1 Grammar, § 301.— 2 j 195._3 $ 25. 



168 SELECT10NS FROM 

ber ba$ 9ftorgenrotb machet unb ben (schlaf fenbet, getreu 
tjt unb ohne Raubet. 

Unb altf fte nun ax\$ beut Kämmerlein traten, ba ffanben 
an ber £büre trierjebn ©cfyufye 1 in einer Dfaifye immer flet* 
ner unb fleüter, je $wct) für ein jeglicfyeg Emblem* £>a 
fat) bie Butter 1 fte an, baß tt)rer fo t>ief waren, unb fte 
weinte. 

£er $ater aber antwortete unb fpracfy : Butter, waö 2 
weütjt £u ? £aben P e b cc *) a ^ fieben bie runben unb mun* 
tem güßlein empfangen, wie follten wir benu um bie S)\\U 
len un$ äugten ? £aben borfj bie Kinblein Vertrauen $u 
un£, wie feilten wir e$ benu ntcfyt $u £em fyaben, ber mehr 
aerrnag, al$ wir Derflefyen ? 

©ietye, feine (Sonne fommt ! $Boblan ! laß unö and) 
unfern £agelauf, wie fte, mit fröfylicfyem 2lntli£ beginnen ! 

5llfo rebeten ffe unb wirften, unb ©ort fegnete ibre 5lr* 
beit, baß fte genug batten fammt ben $inblein ; benu ber 
(Glaube erbebet ben SSRwtb unb bie Ziehe gewähret ©tärfe. 

(Krummacher.) 



2(mt)ntag* 

S5et) frühem borgen fam ber arme Slmimtaä au$ bem 
bicfyten $atn, bag SBctl in feiner fechten. (£v r)atte jui) 
&tabe gefd)nitten gu einem 3axm, unb trug ibre £afi ge* 
frümmt auf ber ©rfjulter. Sa fat) er einen jungen @irf)* 
bäum neben einem binraufebenben 53atf), unb ber 25acf) batte 
wilb feine SÖBurjefn fcon ber @rb' entblößt, unb ber S5aum 
ftanb ba traurig unb brobte $u fwfen. <2cf)abe, fpradj er, 
follteft £>u, SSaum, in bieö wilbe 3öafier (türmen ; nein, bem 
$ßipfel foll nirfjt $um epiel feiner ^Bellen Eingeworfen 
femt ! 3^t nahm er bie fcfywercn <&täbe üon ber 6cl)ultcr ; 

1 Grammar, § 111. Comp. Appendix K. — ä § 201. note. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 169 

id) fann mir anbete (Stäbe bolen, fpracf) er, unb fyub an, 
einen ftarfen Damm fcor ben SSaum hingubauen, nnb grub 
frifcfje (£rbe. 5e£t mar ber Damm gebaut unb bie ent* 
blökten ifihrqcfa mit frifcfyer (ixte bebeeft, 1 unb je£t nafym 
er fein 35etl auf bie (Schulter, unb läcfyelte noef) einmal)!, $u* 
frieben mit feiner Arbeit, in ben Schatten be£ geretteten 
25aumc£ bin, unb rovttte in ben £am $urütf, 2 um anbere 
<&tähe $u bolen ; aber bie Drt)a$ rief ifym mit lieblicher 
(Stimme caxö ber @icbe 31t : (Sollt' id) unbetobnt bid) weg* 
(äffen, gütiger &irt ? • Sage mir% 3 nxt£ n>ünfrf)e|l Du $ur 
SSetobnung ?a 3d) weiß, bag Du arm bift, unb nur fünf 
(Scfyafe $ur $]cibe fübrefL — £), wenn T)\\ mir gu bitten üer* 
gönneft, Sftympfye, fo fpracfy ber arme §irt, mein 9iad)bar 
^alemon i|t feit ber dritte fcfyon franf, lag ihn gefunb tt>er* 
ben ! 

(So bat ber 3?eblid)e, unb ^alemen warb gefunb ; aber 
2lmpntag fab ben mächtigen Segen in feiner £erbe unb bei) 
feineu Räumen unb grüttten, unb warb ein reicher ftirt ; 
benn bie ©ötter (äffen He ^cblicfyen nirfjt ungefegneh 

(Gessner.) 



£amet unb 9^afcf)ib* 

Grtne brenuenbe Dürre »erbeerte fcfyon lange bie ©ejttbe 
Snbien^, alö g»e$ fttrten, gantet unb Dfafcfyib, ft'd) auf ber 
©ränge ifyrer gelber begegneten. (Sie ftarben bemtafye ttor 
Dürft, unb faben if)re gerben gleichfalls fcerfcljmacljtem 
Sie fyeben bie fingen gen Fimmel, unb flehten il^n x\m 
£ülfe. Siebe, ba enijraub auf einmal)! eine tiefe (Stilte : 
bie Segel borten auf gu fingen, ba$ liefen nnb 23rül!en ber 
#erbe tterfrummte, unb bie bomben girren fal)en im Ztjal 

1 Grammar, § 280.— 2 An adverb, in the sense of the verb 

äurücfget)en — 3 Contrnciiöti of mir c£, 
15 



170 SELECTIONS FROM )-^A<JL ' 

eine erhabne, überirbifdbe s D^cnfcf)cngcpaft jTcfy irrten näfyern. 
& war hex fyofye ©eijt ber Qrrbe, ber ©lütf unb Ungfütf ben 
-©ter blieben aüötbeilet* 3fl ber einen £anb l)ielt er bie 
®arbe beg Ueberffaffeö, nnb üt ber anbern hie <&id)el ber 
$erwüftung. ©te gitterten für (Srfjretfen unb fugten ffd> 
$u verbergen ; aber ber ©et(t rief tfynen mit fanfter (Stimme 
^u, wie ber Sepbm* lifpeft, wenn er ffcf> abenbö auf ben 
woblriecfyenben ©efträucfyen 2lrabten$ wieget 

„ 3^ahct C^udf), fprarf) er, ©6l)ne be$ (staubet ; flieget 
cuern $Öobltt)äter nirfjt 3d) bin gekommen, (£urf) ein ©e* 
fdjenf anzubieten, ba$ nur burrf) eure £t)orbeiten unnü£ 
unb öerberblirf) werben fann. 3rf) will euer ©ebetl) erfüll 
len unb (£urf) ^Baffer geben, wenn Sfytr mir fagt, wie t>xef 3br 
$u eurer 23efricbigung bebürft Uebereift (£ucf) aber nid)t in 
eurer Antwort 25ebenft, ba$ in allen toenfcfylicfyen 23e* 
bürfuiflen ba$ Uebermag eben fo fcfyäblirf) ijt al3 ber 9)?an* 
a,eL (£rfläret eud) ; unb £u, £amer, rebe $nerft." 

„ £) gütiger @tei|t ! antwortete £>amet, wenn £m meine 
Äübnfyeit tter$eü)en witljt, fo bitte irf) um einen lleinen 23arf), 
ber im ©ommcr nirfjt ttertrotfnet unb im 5öinter nid)t über* 
fcfywommet/' £u fottjt tr>n haben, antwortete ber ©eift, 
unb frf)htg mit feiner ©icfyef, bte je£t ein SBBerfgcug ber 
$Bof)ltbätigfeit würbe, ben Zobern £ie bet)ben Wirten 
faben $u it)ren güflen eine Duette fyerttorfprubeln unb ftcf) 
über bie gelber bc3 ftamet verbreiten* £ie 5Bfan.cn band)* 
ten einen frifcfycn <Iöob(gerurf) ; bie Saunte fcfymücften jTrf) 
mit grünerm ?aube, unb bie Sterben löfrfjten in bem füllen 
<z%on\ tfyren £urfL 

3efet wenbete ffrfj ber ®eijt ^u bem gweitfcn #irten unb 
gebot ilmt $u rebem 3dj Kttc £trf), fprarf) ^afcfyib, £u wol* 
left ben großen ©angeö mit allen feinen Gaffern unb 
gifdjen burrf) meine gelber leiten» £er gutherzige £amet 
bewunberte ben mutagen ©toI$ be$ 9?afrf)ib, unb ganfte 
fyeimlirf) mit prf) felbjt, baß er biefe große SSitte nirf)t juerfl 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 171 

gewagt fyabe, fo mie 9tafrf)ib in feinen §er$en fttf) fcfyon über 
ben $or$ng freute, ben er al$ 53ejT£er nnb @igenti)itmer be£ 
($ange3 t>or bem einfältigen £amet haben werbe* ©rimetf 
aber nal)m ber ®eijt eine fnrcrjterlicfye ©ejtalt an nnb ging 
anf ben Strom $n. Die Wirten jtanben in ängjHicfyer dx* 
wartnng, xva$ er tfynn werbe, atö ftd) in ber gerne ein ge* 
wältiget 23ranfen erfyob, nnb ber @ange£, ber feine Dämme 
bnrcrjbrocfyen tyatte, in reißenben gtntben berabfcfyoß. Die 
^Baffer Ü6erftr6mten nnb verheerten in einem 2utgenb(icf 
aKe gelber be3 9?afd)ib. ©ie entwurzelten feine S5änme, 
öerfd)langen feine gerben ; ibn felbfr riß bie gfntb mit fid) 
fort. Der jM$e 35eftiser be6 ©ange3 wnrbe ber 9?anb eine£ 
$rofobift$, tnbeß ber befcfyeibene gantet an feiner Duette 
in griebe wobnte. (Herder.) 



Der fyungrige Araber. 

(£in Araber war tterirrt in ber 2öüjte. 3wet) £age fanb 
er 1 9iicr)t$ $u ejfen nnb war in ©efabr öor junger $u fter* 
ben, bi$ er enb(irf) eine tton ben 2öaffergrnben antraf, an$ 
benen hie D^eifenben ifyre Äameefe rränfen, nnb anf bem 
©anbe einen fleinen lebernen (Bad (iegen faf). @ott fep 
gelobt, fagte er, aU er ibn aufhob nnb anführte ; ba$ ftnb, 
glaub 1 irf), Datteln ober 9fttffe : mc will id) mief) an if)nen 
ergniefen nnb laben ! 3n biefer füjfen Hoffnung öffnete er 
ben ©aef, fafy tvaö er enthielt, nnb rief fcott £raurigfeit auö : 
2ld) ! e$ ftnb nnr perlen* (Id.) 



Slleranber unb ein afrifanifcfyeö $olf. 

2luf feinem 3nge, bie 5B3eft Jtt bezwingen, f am 2lleranber, 
ber 9ftacebonier, $u einem Sßolfe in Jtfrifa, t>a$ in einem ab? 

1 Gram mar, § 108. 



172 SELECTIONS FROM 

gefonberten 2Binfel in frieblidjen feiten wohnte, mtb we? 
ber $rieg nod) (Eroberer fannte. 9D?an führte it)tt nt bte 
glitte bcß 25el)errfd)er$, um ihn 31t bewtrtfyen. tiefer 
fefcte ifyn golbene Datteln, golbene geigen, tmb golbene^ 
23rob öor.— (Sjfet 3fyr bag ®olb fyier ? fragte 9lferanber.— 
3dj ftelle mir vor, antwortete ber 23eberrfd)er, genießbare 
(Reifen fyättejt Du in deinem tobe wofyl aud) ftnben fön* 
neu» 1 28arum bijt Du benn $u un£ gefemmen ?— (£uer 
®olb fyat mirf) nicfyt htcher gelotft, fprad) 2lleranber, aber 
eure (Sitten möchte id) fennen lernen. — 3iim wofyl, erwte? 
berte jener, fo weile benn be» unö fo fange eß Dir gefallt. 

3nbem fte ftd) unterhielten, famen ^wet) Bürger Der @e? 
rtd)t* Der Kläger fprad) : 3d) fyabe von biefem Spanne 
ein (Sfctmbftücf getauft, nnb alß irf) ben SBoben burcfygrub, 
fanb id) einen @d)a$. Diefer ift nid)t mein, benn id) t)abe 
nur ba£ ®runbjtücf erlauben, nicfyt ben barin verborgenen 
<&d)ai$ ; nnb gfeicbwobl will ü)n ber 35erfdufer uicfyt wieber? 
neunten. — Der 23ef(agte antwortete : 3d) bin eben fo ge* 
wiffeufyaft a\ß mein Mitbürger. 3d) babe ihm baß ®ur, 
fammt allem voaß barin verborgen war, »erfanft, unb alfo 
and) ben <&d)ai$. 

Der 9tid)ter wieberbolte il)re $ßorte, bamit (Te feigen, ob 
er fte recfyt verftanben fycitte, unb, naefy einiger- Ueberlegung, 
fprad) er : Du baft einen ©efyn, greuub ! Sfttcfyt ? — 3a ! 
— Unb Du eine £od)ter ?— 3a !— 9£un wofyl ! Dein ©olm 
fott Deine £od)ter fyeiratfyen, unb baß (£bepaar ben dcd)a% 
Sunt £eiratb3gute befommen. — 3Uerauber fd)ien betroffen. 
3(1 etwa mein 3ln3fprnd) ungered)t ? fragte ber Sßeberr* 
fdjer. — £) nein ! erwieberte 2llerauber, aber er befrembet 
mid). — 3Bie würbe benn bie (&ad)e in eurem 2anbe au^ge* 
fallen fetm ? fragte jener. — Vic SBafjrbeit $u gegeben, er? 
wieberte 2lleranbcr, wir würben bct)be Männer in SSerwab? 
rung gehalten unb ben <&d)at$ für ben $önig in 23ejT£ ge* 

1 Gram mar, § 253. 



GERMAN L1TERATUKE. 173 

nommen haben.— gür ben Monis ? fragte ber SSefyerrfcfyer, 
sotter ^erwnnbernng. (Scheinet cmd) bie (Senne auf jene 
@rbe ?— £) ja !— Segnet e$ bort ?— -3(tterbing$ !— (Sonber* 
bar ! ©tebt e^ 1 and) $abme, frantfreffenbe £t)iere bort ?— 
2Son mandjerfet) 5(rt» — ^un, fprad) ber Sßefyerrfcfyer, fo 
wirb woM ca$ attgittige Sefen.nm btefer nnfdjnfbigcn 
£biere mitten 2 in eurem £anbe bie (Sonne [cremen nnb reg; 
nen lajfen. Sfyr »erbient e£ nid)t. (Engel.) 



2)a$ tngenbhaft <&eib. J^ 

$abbi ^etr, ber große 2efyrer, fa£ am Sa66atb in ber^ 



geijrjhtbe nnb nnterwieö ba3 SBolf» Unterbeffen flarben 



feine bet)ben Söhne, bcpbe fd)ön son $Bud)$ nnb er(end)tet 
im ®efe£e. Seine &an£frau nafym pe, trng fte auf oen 
©ötter, legte fie anf i()r 23ett,imb breitete ein wei$c$ ©ewanb 
über ihre ?cirfmabme. 2(benb3 fam yiabbi tyleix nad) 
£anfe. — So fmb meine (Söhne, fragte er, baß id) ihnen ben 
(Segen gebe ? — (Sie jmb in bie ?ebrfd)tt(e gegangen, war 
ihre Antwort. — 3d) l)abe mid) nmgefehen, erwieberte er, 

nnb bin ffe nicht gewähr werben. (Sie reichte ihm einen 

23ecf)er ; er tobte ben frerrn $nm 2Ut6gange beö ©abbatl)^, 
tranf, nnb fragte abermabte : So jmb meine (Söfyne, baß 
fte and) trinf en ttem Seine be3 (Segens ? — Sie werben md)t 
weit femt, fprad) fie, nnb feilte il)m Der $n effen. (£r war 
gnter £ingc. 3 Site er nad) ber Wlatypit gebanft hatte, 
fprad) ffe : 9?abbt, erlaube mir eine grage. — (So fprid) nnr, 
meine Ziehe, antwortete er.— $or wenig £agen, 4 fprad) fte, 
gab mir ^emanb ^(einobien in SSerwabnmg, nnb je£t fer* 
bert er fie guritcf. Sott id) fte üjm wiebergeben ?— £ie£ 
fottte meine grau nid)t erft fragen, fprad) 9?abbt 9D?etr. 

1 Qbiebt e$,are there.— ü um Witten, on aecount of.— 3 Q?r 

war gnter £mge, he haJ good cheer.— 4 t>or wenig £agcn, a 

few days ago. 

15* 



174 SELECTIONS FROM 

SfiMteft £n 21nftanb nehmen, eütem 3eben ba$ Seine wie* 
beigeben ?— D nein ! fcerfelste fte ; aber and) wteberge* 

ben wollte icf) otme bein $orwiffen nid)t 25alb baranf 

fitste jTe tyn auf ben ©öfter, trat f)in nnb nahm ba$ ®e* 
wanb öon ben 2eid)nabmen.— 3Jfd), meine Sölme! jam* 
merte ber 35ater; meine Söfyne .-. * nnb meine Lehrer! 
3d) fyabe @nd) gemengt, aber Sljr habt mir bie fingen erlencfc 
tet im (Sefefce. — Sie wenbete ftct) hinweg nnb weinte» (£nb* 
lief) ergriff jTe iijti bet) ber £anb, nnb fprad) : Dfabbi, bajt Du 
mid) nid)t gelefyrt, man müfte ftd) nid)t weigern, wteberju* 
geben, wa$ nn$ jur SBerwaljrmtg üertrant warb ? Sielte, 
ber £err fyat'3 gegeben, ber £err tyat'ö genommen ; ber 
üftafyme be3 £errn fei) gelobet !— Der Mahnte be$ £errn fe*> 
gelobet ! jtimmte 9?abbt 9#eir ein. Söofyl beißt e3 : „ 2Ber 
ein tngenbl)aft $ßetb gefnnben, 1 bat einen großem <cd)a% 
benn föjtlicfye perlen. Sie fyut ihren 9Dc*unb anf mit $öeiä* 
fyett, nnb anf ifyre 3ungc tft bolbfelige ?e()re/' (Id.) 



Die 2(uäfprad)e beg £er$en$. 

(£injt trat ber liebenbe (S5entu^ ber gefnfylreidjern 9D?en* 
fd)en fcor ben Jupiter, nnb bat : „ ©öttftcfyer $ater, gieb 
deinen armen 9ttenfd)en eine beffere Sprache ; benn jTe I)a* 
ben nnr $öorte, wenn fte fagen wollen, wie fte tranern, wie 
fte frol)loden, wie fte lieben." — „ S?ab y i<fy ihnen benn nid)t 
bie £b,ränc gegeben," fagte Jupiter, „bte £bräue ber 
grenbe, nnb bie £bräne beö Sd)mer$c3, nnb bie füffere ber 
Siebe?" Der $eniu$ antwortete: „and) bie £bräne 
fprid)t t>a$ £er$ nid)t anö. ®öttlid)er 33ater, gieb ihnen 
eine beffere Sprache, wenn fte fagen wollen, wie fte bie 
nnenblid)e Sel)nfnd)t fühlen,— wie ihnen ba$ 2föorgenflern* 

1 Grammar, § 281. 



GERMAN LITERATÜRE. 175 

cfyen ber Minbtyeit nacfyblinft — unb bte Dfafenaurora ber %u* 
genb narfjgtü^t — unb wie fcor ifynen im Alfter bag golbene 
2lbenbgewöff eine£ künftigen £eben£tageg gtübenb unb t)od) 
über ber verlernen ©ornte fcfywebt — @te6 ümen eine neue 

(Sprache für baö §erj, mein $ater !" 3cfeo borte 

Jupiter in bem ©pfyärenffange ber ^Betten bie 9)2ufe be3 
©efange$ annagen, unb er winrre ifyr unb fagte : „ Sic ty 
hinunter $u ben ^enfcfyen, unb tcfyre jTe teilte Sprache/' 
T)a tarn hie Wlu\e be3 ®efange£ $u un6 bemieber, unb 
lehrte bie £öne; unb feitbem fann ba£ 9ttenfrf)enber$ 
fprecfyen. (J. P. F. Richter.) 



$robe ber männlichen £tebe. 

$erfc, faßt Voltaire, werben am bcften geprüft, ob (Te 
poetifcfycn Qetft baben, wenn man fte in $rofe überträgt unb 
jTe ifyn barin behalten, ©o ratfy' td) ben grauen als* bie 
befte $robe ber männttdjett ^tebe an, bicfe in bie ^)rofe ber 
@t)e $u überfeinen unb mitten in ber Ziehe $u fyeiratben* 

(Id.) 



„2tu3 meinem 2 eben." 

©ewöfynlid) hielten wir uu$ in allen unfern gmjfhtnben 
jur ©roßmutter, tu bereu geräumigen $3ol)u$immer wir 
fyütlänglid) ^)la$ $u unfern (Spielen fauben. ©ie wußte 
un^ mit allerlei) Äleinigfeiten $u befd)äftigen, unb mit aller* 
(ei) guten 35ijfen $u erqutefem 2ln einem 2Beil)nad)t3abenbe 
jebod) fe£te fte alten il)ren 90Bol)ftl)atcn bie Mvone auf, inbem 
fte unö ein ^uppenfpiet Borrelien ließ, unb fo in bem alten 
$aufe eine neue 2Se(t erfcfyuf. £iefe3 unerwartete 
©djaufpiel $og bie jungen ©emütber mit (Gewalt an ftd) ; 
befouberö auf ben Knaben mad)te e3 einen fet)r flarfen 



176 SELECTIONS FROM 

Grtnbrntf, ber in eine große fangbanernbe Sßßtrfmtg naef)* 
ffang. 

£)ie Heine 23übne mit ifyrem ftnmmen ^erfonaf, bie man 
unö anfangt nur t>orge$etgt batte, nachher aber $u eigner 
Uebnng nnb bramatifcfjer Sßelebnng übergab, mnfte un$ 
$tnbern nm fo Diel werter femi, ate e£ ba£ le£te $er* 
mäcfjtnif? nnferer gnten ©roßmntter mar, bie bafb baranf 
buref) $nnebmenbe Äranfbeit unfern otogen erfl endogen, 
nnb bann für immer bnrcf) ben £ob entrifien mnrbe. 1 

(Goethe.) 



5fn$ i>em ,,£eutrief) »on Dfterbütgen." 

(I. Zt). 1 Aap.) 
Zrie geltem lagen fefjon nnb fcfjltefen; bie 2öanbubr 
fcfjlng ifyren einförmigen £aft ; ttor ben flappernben gen* 
fternfanjce ber 2öinb ; abmeefyfelnb mnrbe bie (stnbe bell öon 
bem ©cfyimmer be3 ^Iftonbeg. £er Sünglüig lag unruhig 
anf feinem ?ager, nnb gebaute beg gremben 2 nnb feiner 
(Srjä ^fangen. 2 9tid)t bie ©cf)ä£e ffnb e3, bie ein fo nnau£* 
fprecfylicfyeä Verlangen in mir gemetft fyaben, fagte er $n fief) 
fefbjt ; fern ab liegt mir alle £abfncf)t ; aber bie bfane 
S31nme fefyne id) micf) $n erbtiefen. (Sie liegt mir nnanfbör* 
lief) im ©inne,nnb id) fann 9iicf)t$ anberg biegten nnb benfen. 
©o ift mir nocl) nie ^n s IRittbe gemefen : s e$ ijt, al$ bätte id) 
öorbin getränmt, ober id) märe in eine anbere 2Belt hinüber 
gefcfjfummert ; nnb gar fcon einer fo feltfamen £eibenfcf)aft 
für eine SBlnme tyaV id) bamabfö nie gebort $Öo eigene 
lief) nnr 4 ber grembe fyerfam ? feiner fcon nng bat je 
einen äbnliefjen 5D?enfef)en gefe()n ; boef) meig id) ntefjt, ma* 
mm nnr id) tton feinen Dieben fo ergriffen morben 5 bin ; bie 

1 Grammar, § 281.— 2 § 91. — 8 @0 i(t mir etc. / have never 
before beert so affected. — 4 tt>0 nnr, but tohence.— 5 § 235, note. 



GEEMAN LITEEATTJEE. 177 

Ruberen bähen ja ba3 9iät)tnlid)e gebort, unb fernem tfl fo 
etwa$ begegnet. £aß id) and) ntd)t einmal tfon meinem 
wunberlicfyen ßuftanbe reben f ann ! (£$ ijt mir oft fo ent* 
^ücfenb wohl, nnb nur bann, wenn ich bte SBhtme ntd)t red)t 
gegenwärtig habe, befällt mtrf) ein fo tiefet innige^ treiben ; 
ba3 fann nnb wirb deiner öerftebn. 3d) glaubte, id) wäre 
wafynjmnig, wenn ich nid)t fo Har nnb bell fäbe unb backte ; 
mir tjt feitbem 3lde^ ttiel bekannter. 3d) hörte einjt tten 
alten Soften reben ; wie ba bie giriere unb Zäunte unb %eU 
fen mit ben tylc\tfdm\ gefpredben hätten, 9#ir ijt gerabe fo, 
afö wollten fte allaugenblicrTid) anfangen, unb aU tonnte 
id) e$ ihnen anfeben, wa$ fie mir fagen wollten. (£$ muß 
nod) Diel 2öorte geben/ bie id) nid)t mi$ : witpte icf) met)r, 
fo fönnte id) kriel bejfer 2We3 begreifen. (Sonjt tankte id) 
gern, jei^t benfe id) lieber nad) ber ülttujtf. — Der SungKng 
verlor fid) atlmäblig in frtfe ^bantaften unb entfcblummerte« 
£)a träumte ihm 2 erft öon unabfehlid)en fernen, unb wilbeu 
unbekannten ©egenben. (£r wanberte über 9D2eere mit im* 
begreiflicher ?eicbtigfett ; wunberlicbe £l)iere fah er; er 
lebte mit mannigfaltigen 20?enfcben, balb im Kriege, im 
wilben (Getümmel, in jtitlen fcütten. @r gerieth in ®efan* 
genfcfyaft, unb in bie fd)mählid)jte 9toth. Me @mpftnbung* 
en (hegen bi$ $u einer nie gekannten ftöbe in ifym. (£r 
burd)lebte ein unenblid) bunteö Zehen ; ftarb unb fam voie* 
ber, liebte bi$ %nv bödmen £eibenfd)aft, unb war bann voie< 
ber auf ewig fcon feiner (beliebten getrennt. (£nblicb, gegen 
borgen, roie brausen bie Dämmerung anbrach, würbe eö 
jtiller in feiner (Seele, flarer unb bleibenber würben bie 
93tlber. (5$ fam ihm t)or, al3 ginge er in einem bunflen 
SGBatbe allein. 9tur feiten fd)immerte ber £ag bnvd) ba3 
grüne 9ie£. Sßalb tarn er »or eine $e(fenfd)fud)t, bie ber* 
gan ftieg. dt mußte über bemoojte (Steine flettern, bie ein 
ehemaliger (Strom herunter gerijfen hatte, 3e böfyer er 

1 ($$ muß geben, there must 6c— 2 träumte Ü)m, he dreamed, 



178 SELECTIONS FROM 

fam, bejto Kdfjter würbe ber 2öafb* (£nblid) gelangte er $u 
einer fleinen $3iefe, bie am £ange be$ SBergeä tag. £inter 
ber 2öiefe erhob fTd) eine hohe flippe, an beren guß er eine 
Öffnung erbltdte, bie ber Anfang eineö in ben gelfen ge* 
fyauenen ®ange$ $u femt fd)iem Der ®ang führte ihn ge* 
mächlid) eine Zeitlang eben fort, hiä $u einer großen $öei^ 
tung, au£ ber ihm frfjon fcon fern ein fyelleö ?td)t entgegen 
glänzte. 5ß3te er hineintrat, warb er einen mächtigen 
(Strahl gewahr, ber wie anö ein ©pringquell hi$ an bte 
Detfe bc$ ©ewölbeä jtieg, nnb oben in unzählige gnnfen 
$erftäubtc, bie ffrf) unten in einem großen Werfen fammelten ; 
ber ©trabl glänzte n>ie ent$ünbete$ @olb ; nid)t ba$ min* 
bejte ©eräufd) war $u hören ; l eine heilige ©ritte umgab ba$ 
t)err(irf)e 6ct)aufpieL (£r näherte fid) bem 25cden, baä mit 
unenblidjeu garben wogte nnb gitterte* Die 2Öänbe ber 
£öf)le waren mit biefer $lüßigfett überwogen, bie nid)t heiß 
fonbern fühl war, unb bie an ben 28änben nur ein mattet, 
bläulidje^ £id)t tton (Td) warf» (£r tauchte feine £aub in 
ba£ Geden, unb benetzte feine kippen. d$ war, aU burd)* 
bränge itm ein geiftiger £aud), unb er füllte |Td) innigjt ge* 
ftärft unb erfrifdjt din unwiberjter)lid)e£ Verlangen ergriff 
ir)n $u haben ; er entfleibete ftd) unb ftieg in ba$ Sßecfen. 
(£ä bünfte ihn, alö umflöge ihn eine SfÖolfe be$ 2tbenbrotl)$ ; 
eine himmlifclje (£mpfmbung überftrömte fein 3nnereö ; mit 
inniger 2öotlujt jtrebten unzählbare ©ebanfen in ifym f d) $u 
üermifdhen ; neue, nie gefefyene Silber entffanben, bie and) 
in einanber flößen, unb $u jTd)tbaren 2öefen um ü)n wur* 
ben. 

S5eraufd)t fcon Qnttjücfen, unb bodj jebeg (Jmbrucfö be* 
wüßt, fd)wamm er gemad) bem leudjtenben (Strome nad), 
ber anö bem 23eden in ben Reifen hineinfloß» (5ine 5lrt 
tton fußen Schlummer bejtet ihn, in welchem er unbefdjreib* 
Iid)e Gegebenheiten träumte, unb worauf ihn eine anbere 

1 Grammar, <§ 252. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 179 

Erleuchtung wecfte» Er fanb ffd) auf entern weidjexx 
9tofen am D^anbe einer Duette, tue in bie 2uft x)ixxaxx$* 
quoll, unb ffd) barin $u tter$el)ren festen. Xmnfelblaue 
gelfen mit bunten 2lbern erhoben ffd) in einiger Entfernung ; 
bag StageöKrfjt, bag tt)tt umgab, war better unb mitber al£ 
baS gewöhnliche ; ber §immel mar fcfywaräblau unb völlig 
rein» 5ßa3 ii)xx aber mit Dotter $fta&)t an^og, war eine 
fyofye, lichtblaue 25lume, bie sunädjjt axx ber Duette ftanb, 
unb ifnt mit ifyren breiten, gläu^enben blättern berührte, 
3hmb xxrxx fte fyer 1 (tauben un$ät)tige Blumen t>oxx atten gar* 
ben, unb ber föjtticfyjte ©erurf) erfüllte bie ?uft» Er fal) 
9Hrf)t$ al$ bie blaue 23fume, unb betrachtete fte lange mit 
unnennbarer 3ärtlid)feit» Enbfid) wellte er ffd) tfyr nähern, 
al$ fte auf einmabj ffd) $u bewegen unb $u tteränbern an* 
fing ; bie Blätter würben gfän^enber unb fd)miegten ffd) axx 
ben wacfyfenben ©tängel, bie SBtume neigte ffd) nad) ihm $u, 
unb bie Sßlütbenbtätter geigten einen blauen ausgebreiteten 
fragen, in welchem ein partes ®effd)t fcfywebte» ©ein füßeö 
©tarnten mxd)$ mit ber fonberbaren 2Serwanblung, als ix)n 
pföijlid) bie (Stimme feiner Butter werfte, unb er ffd) in ber 
älterlidjen ©tube fanb, bie fd)on bie 9D?orgenfomte ttergolbete. 
Er war $u entlieft, um unwillig über biefe (Störung $u femt ; 
tnetmefyr bot er feiner 9DMter freunbtid) guten borgen unb 
erwieberte ihre IjerjKcfje Umarmung» 

Du ?angfd)läfer, fagte ber SSater, wie lange fftse iä) fd)on 
l)ier unb feile» 3d) l)abe beinetwegen 9tid)tS hämmern 
bürfen ; 2 bie Butter wollte ben lieben ©ol)tt fd)lafen 3 lajfen» 
2luf3 grüt)jlücf habe id) aud) warten muffen» 2 ^lügtid) fyaft 
£m ben £et)rftattb erwäl)tt, für ben wir wachen unb arbeiten» 
3nbeß ein tüchtiger @etel)rter, wie i&) mir habe fagen 3 laf* 
fett, mttg aud) 3^cäd)te $tt §ülfe neunten, um bie großen 
^Jöerfe ber weifen Vorfahren $u ftubiren» lieber SSater, 
antwortete #einrid), werbet ntrf)t unwillig über meinen tan* 

1 ^Unb Um fte l)ev r around it. 2 Grammar, § 250. 

3 § 249 c. 



180 SELECTIONS FROM 

gen ©cfyfof, ben ihr fontf ntcf>t an mir gewobnt fenb. 1 3d) 
fct)fief erft fpät ein, 2 unb t)abe üiefe unrubige brannte gehabt, 
btö ^nlefpt ein anmutbiger £raum mir erfcfyien, ben tcb fange 
nid)t »ergejfen werbe, unb Don bem mid) bünft, ate fei) er 
mefyr ate btojfer £raum gewefem lieber £einrid), fprad) 
bte Butter, Du fyaft Did) gewiß auf ben dürfen gelegt, ober 
bemn -Mbenbfegeu frembe ©ebanfen gehabt Du ft'ebjt aud) 
norf) gan$ wunbernd) an$. 3ß unb trinf, baß Du munter 
wirfL 

Die Butter ging fyinauä ; ber $ater arbeitete emjTg fort, 
unb fagte : £räume jutb (scfyäume, mögen aucf) bie bod)* 
gelehrten Ferren baüon benfen wa$ pe motten, unb Du 
tbujtwobf,wenu Dubein ©emutb üon bergfeicben Unnüfcen 
unb fd)äblid)en Betrachtungen abwenbeft* Die Reiten finb 
md)t mel)r wo 31t ben träumen göttticfye @ej!d)te ftd) gefeilt 
ten, unb n>ir fönnen unb werben e£ nicht begreifen, wie ed 
jenen autferwäMten 50idnnern, t)on benen bie Vßibei er$ä fy(t, 
31t 90?utbe gewefen ift, 3 Damatyfä muß e$ eine anbere 95e* 
fdjaffenbeit mit ben träumen gehabt l)aben, fo wie mit ben 
menfcfyftcfyen Dingen. 

(Novalis, or F. von Hardenberg.) 






D a $ 3 n q u i f 1 1 i n $ g e r t d) t. 

C^iuc (Stiftung neuer %xt unb eigener ©attung ift biefe 
fpanifebe 3nqutfition, bie im ganzen £anfe ber Reiten fein 
Sorbiib ftnbet, unb mit feinem gciftficfycn, feinem wettticfyen, 
Tribunale $u üerglcidjcn jlteljt. 3nqmj!tton Ijat e$ gegeben, 4 
feitbem bie Vernunft jTd) an ba$ Zeitige wagte, feitbem e3 
3weiflcr unb teuerer Qab ; 4 aber erft um bie Glitte be3 
Dreizehnten 3abrt)imbert6, naebbem einige Beispiele ber %b* 

1 (£tWa£ gewohnt feön, to be accuslomed to amj thing. 

ft Grammar, § 301.— 3 wie e$ $u 20ftttbe gewefen ift jenen etc. 

what tvas the mental condition of those etc.— 4 bat e3 gegeben, 
there has been ; e$ gab, there wtre. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 181 

rrünnigfeit bie ftierardnc aufgefcbrecft hatten, baute ihr 
3nnocentüt$ ber ©ritte einen eigenen Dticfyter* 
ftubl, unb trennte auf eine unnatürliche $3eife hie gctft(tcf>c 
3uifftd)t nnb Untcrwcifung von ber ftrafenben (gemalt- Um 
befto ftö)erer gu femt, baj? fein '»Dcenfcfyeugefübt unb feine 
23efted)ung ber 9catur bie ftarre Strenge ihrer Statuten 
auflöfe, entzog er ft'e ben SBifcfyöfcn 1 nnb ber fchilarifcfyen 
©eijHichfrit, bie burtf) bie SBanbe be£ bürgerlichen £cben£ 
noch $n febr an ber 5Dcenfchbeit hing, um ft'e 9Jcönd)cu p 
übertragen, einer 2lbart beö irienfdjödjen Diahmcng, bie bie 
heiligen Striche ber Statur abgcfcfyworeu, 2 bienftbaren Area* 
tnren be3 romifebeu ©t*b1äi £cutfd)lanb, Stoßen; Spa* 
uien, Portugal unb granfreich empfingen ft'e ; ein %tm$& 
fauermonch fa0 bei) bem furchterlid)eu llrtbcilc über bie 
Tempelherren $u @erid)te ; einigen wenigen Staaten gc* 
lang eö, ft'e aus }ufcblie£en, ober ber weltiidjen i^ohett ju 
unterwerfen. £ie 9cieberlanbc waren bi3 $*r Regierung 
Maxi be£ günftcu bamittterfchent geblieben ; 3 ihre S3t^ 
fchöfe übten bie geifttid)e (icnfur, unb in anßerorbentlicfycn 
ftäüen pflegte man f'd) an frembe SuqmfmouSgertcfjtc, bie 
fran^bftfdicn ^rctuu^cit nadi tyaxid, bie benffdjen nad) Stein 
$u wenben. 

516er bie ^nquift'tion, weldie jefct gemeint i|t, tarn an$ 
bem heften öon Europa, anbete in ihrem Urfpruugc, unb 
anber6 an ©eftalt £er lei)tc maurifche £bren war im 
fünfzehnten Sahrbunbert in QJranaba gefallen, unb ber 
fara,$enifd)e ©ottcobienft enblich bem lleberlegencn ©lütfe 
ber Gbriften gewichen. 2tber neu unb noch wenig befeftigt 
war baö (£oan elium fn tiefem jü.K;ft:u d)ri|tfiehen ftStöiwi 
reid)e, unb in ber trüben 9D2ifdutng ungleichartiger ©efef ^ 
unb Sitten hatten ftd) bie Religionen noch nid)t gefchieb en. 



1 £eit 23ifchÖfeit, § 96, and Appendix I. (2.) 2 § 2fj\, 

3 bamit üerfchOUt bleiben, to be exempted therefrom. 

16 



182 SELECTIONS FROM 

3n>ar hatte bat (Stfjmert ber SSerfotgung tn'efe tanfenb %a* 
mitten nacf) $frifa getrieften, aber ein weit größerer £bet(, 
ttott bem geliebten £tmmefcfrrtd}e ber £eimatf) gebalten, 
fanfte ffc£> mit bem ©anfeffpiele öerjMter 23cfebrnng öon 
biefer fcbrecfticfyen 9iötbmenbigfeit let, nnb fnfyr an djrifb 
ticken Elitären fort, feinem ffiabomeb nnb 9ttofe3 $u 
bienen» (So fange et 1 feine (53e6etc naefy 2)?ecca richtete, 
mar @ranaba nidjt unterworfen ; fo lange ber nene @brijt 
im Snncrffctt feinet #aufe$ lieber $um 3uben nnb tyiu\eU 
mann mürbe, mar er bem £brene nicfjt gemijfer, alt bem 
römtfcfyen (Stufyfe. ^e^t mar et nicfyt bamit getban, 2 biefeö 
wiberjtrebenbe Soff in bte äußerltcbe gorm cineä nenen 
Gftaubenö $u fingen, ober et ber fiegenben Strebe bureb 
hie fcfymacben 23anbe ber Zeremonie anzutrauen : et fam 
baranf an, 3 bie 58ur$el einer alten Religion ausstreuten, 
nnb einen hartnäckigen ftang $u beftegen, ber bnrrf) bie lang* 
fam mirfenbe $raft Don 3<*brbunbcrten in feine (Sitten, 
feine (Sprache, feine @efc£e gepflanzt worben, nnb bei) bem 
fortbanernben @influflfc be^ Daterlänbifdjen 25oben3 nnb 
ftimmetö in ewiger Hebung blieb. ^Sollte bie Äircfye einen 
DolffMnbigen (Sieg über ben fernblieben ©ottcSbienjt feiern, 
nnb ibre nene (Eroberung üor jebem diMfalle fteljer (teilen, 
fo mußte fTe ben ©runb fcfbjr untermüblen, anf welchen ber 
alte ©laube gebaut mar ; fte mußte bie gan^e gorm bet 
ftttlicfyen (Sfyaraftere $erfcl)lagen, an bie er auf£ %nni$fte ge* 
beftet fcfyicm N> %n ben verborgenden liefen ber (Seele mußte 
fte feine gebeimen 3öur$etn ablöfen, alle feine (Spuren im 
greife bet tjäntUdjen 2eben3 nnb in ber Söürgermelt ant* 
\ ofcfjen, jebe (Erinnerung an i(m abwerben lajfen, nnb mo 
mk ögfirf) felbjt bie @mpfänglicbfeit für feine ^inbrücfe tobten. 
$a/ertanb nnb gamilie, i^emiffen nnb (£tjre, bie heiligen 

l et% i. e. Granada.— 2 3e£t mar etc., now it was not enough. 
3 £$ fam etc., it was essential. 



GERMAN LITERATTJRE. 183 

@efül)le ber ©efellfcbaft unb ber Diatur jmb immer bte erfc 
cn unb näcfyften, mit benen Religionen ftcf) mifcfyen, tton 
bencn fte Stärfe empfangen, unb benen fte fte geben» £tefe 
$erbinbung mußte jeöt aufgelöft, öon ben beiligen ©efüblen 
ber dlatux mußte bie alte Dielxgton gewaltfam gerifieu wer* 
ben — unb feilte e3 felbft bte £eiltgfeit btefer (£mpftnbungen 
fejten. @» witrbe 1 bte Snqmjttton, bte wir $um Unterfcbiebe 
»on ben meufcblicfyen ®erid)ten, bie ifyren Dtabmen fübren, 
bie fpanifd)e nennen. @e bat ben $arbinal 3£imene3 
$um Stifter ; ein ^ominifanermöncb, £orquemaba, ftieg 
$uer jt auf ibren blutigen Xbron, grünbete ibre (Statuten, 
unb üerflud)tc mit biefem Sermäcbtnifie feinen Drben auf 
ewig* Scbänbung ber Vernunft unb 9D?orb ber @eifrer 
fyeigt tfyr @elübbe; tfyre ^Öerf^enge ftnb (Scbrecfen unb 
(Sdjanbe* %ebe ?eibenfrf)aft ftebt in ibrem (Selbe, ibre 
(Sdjfinge liegt in jeber grenbe be6 £cben£. Selbjt bie @tn* 
famfeit i)l nid)t einfam für jTe ; bie gurcbt ibrer 2lllgegen* 
wart fydlt felbft in ben liefen ber Seele bie grei)beit gefcftclt 
2llle SnjKnfte ber 9D?enfcljeit bat fte berabgejtürjt unter 
ben <&ianhen ; tbm weichen alle 25anbe, bie ber Teufel} 
fonft am beiligften acfytet 2lUe 3lnfprüd)e auf feine &aU 
tung (tnb für einen $e£er öerfcfjeqt ; mit ber leicfyteften Un* 
treue an ber mütterlichen Strebe bat er fein @efrf)lecf)t an& 
gebogen. (£tn befcfyeibener S^cifel an ber Unfcblbarfeit be£ 
tyayfteö wirb geabnbet wie SBatermorb, unb fcl)änbct wie 
(Sobomie ; ibre Urtbeile gleichen ben fd)rec!lid)en germen* 
ten ber $>efr, bie ben gefunbejlcn Körper in fcfynelle SSerwe* 
fuug treiben* (Selbjt ba3 2eblofe, ba$ einem Mefyex ange* 
borte, tft tterflucfyt ; ibre Dpfer fann fein Scfyitf fal ibr un* 
tcrfd)lagen ; an ?eicben unb @emäl)tbcn werben ibre Seit* 
renken ttollftretft ; unb ba3 ©rab felbjl \ft feine 3uflud)t ror 
ibrem cntfetelicfyen 2lrme. 

1 So WUrbe, thus arase. 



184 SELECTIONS FROM 

Bfc Sermejfcnfyeit ihrer Urtbcit3fprüd)c fann nur »cit 
ber Unmenfd)lid)fcit übertreffen werben, womit fte biefelbcn 
»otfftrecft. ^ubent jle Säcrjerliriice mit ftim-htcrlidicm paart, 
unb burch bic ©eltfamfcit be3 gfttfgutß bie Stegen betuftigt, 
entfräftet fte ben tbeilnebmenben Slffeft bnrd) ben Siitpci 
eiltet anbern ; im t&pott unb in ber 2>erad)tung errränfr fte 
bie (Sympathie. ^O^it feierlichem q)ompc führt man ben 2>er* 
breerjer gur ^ic^tiTratt, eine rothe SBlutfalmc webt tteran, ber 
3ufamntenflang aller ©Iccfen begleitet ben 3^9 5 $uerjt 
fommen ^rtefter htf $)icf\qcwanbe, unb fingen ein heiliget 
Sieb* X 3bucn folgt ber »crurtbeilte Sünber, in ein gelbed 
©ewanb gefleibet, worauf man fdjwaqe £cnfeü?gefraltcn 
abgcmablt ftebt* 2(uf bem Äopfe trägt er eine Ottüfee tton 
Rapier, bie ftd) ut eine 5!)?enfd)cnftgur enbigt, um welche 
$euerflammcn fd)lagen, unb fdjeitfjftcfyc Dämonen herum* 
fliegen. ^Beggefebrt tton bem ewig 2>erbammteu wirb baö 
Sßilb be$ befreitsten getragen ; ihm gilt bie (£rlöfung nicht 
mehr. Sem geuer gehört fein ftcrbtidjcr Seih, wie ben 
glammen ber £>öllc feine uujterblid)e Seele. I diu Knebel 
fperrt feinen >9?uub, unb »erwehrt ifym, feinen ©cfymerg in 
otogen 31t linbern, bau 9D?itleib burch feine rührenbc @e* 
frf)id)te pt wedeu, unb bie ©eljctmmfie beö Eiligen ©erid)tg 
au^ufagen. 2ln ihn fdjlicgt fid) bie_ ©eijtlicfyfeit im feftli* 
rf)cu £)rnatc, bie Dhrigfeit unb ber 2lbcl ; bie 3Säter, bic 
tfyn gerichtet haben, bcfchließen ben fdxuteru'djcn 3«3- Sßlan 
glaubte eine £cid)c £u fehen, bie 31t ©rabc geleitet wirb, unb 
c$ tft ein febenbiger Oftenfcb, befreit Dualen jefct bau ?ßolt 
fo fdjattberbaft unterhalten follcn.^ ©ewöbnlid) werben 
biefe Einrichtungen auf hohe gefre gerichtet, too$i\ man eine 
bejiimmte Slu^a 1)1 folcfycr UngtücHidjen in ben Verfem beß 
^eiligen &amfeä ^ufammenfpart, um bnrd) bie Ottenge ber 
SDpfer bie fraublttng $tt tterberrtieben ; unb atebann futb 
felbjt bic Könige zugegen. Sie ftr^cu mit unbebedtem 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 



185 



Raupte auf einem niebrtgern Stuhle, atä ber ®rof?inqmff* 
tor, bem (tc an einem folgen £age ben 9?ang über ftrf) ge* 
ben — unb wer wirb nun fcor einem Tribunale nicht erjit* 
tern, neben welchem bie 9Jeajeftät fclbjt öerftnft ? 

Die große (S)lauben6refcolutton burch Luther unb SiaU 
vin brachte bie TiQtkjmnbitfeit lieber jurücf, welche bie* 
fem (Berichte feine erfte (Entjtebung gegeben ; ! unb n?a^ au^ 
fänglich nur erfunben war, baS Keine Königreich @ranaba 
Don ben fchwachen ileberrefkn ber Sarazenen unb %nbcn 
$u reinigen, mürbe je£t ba3 SSebürfntfj ber ganzen fatboli^ 
ftfjen @brijlenbeu\ Wie ^uquifitioncn in Portugal, in 
Italien, £eutfcblanb uitb granfretch nahmen bie %oxm ber 
fpamfcfyen an, fie folgte ben Europäern nach Subicn, unb 
errichtete in ®i>a ein fchrecflicf)e£ Tribunal, befjcn unmen* 
fchliche ^»roccburen uuö noch in ber Q3cfchrctbuug burchfchatt* 
ern* >:• SEBolnn fie ihren guß feilte, folgte ihr bte Sßerwüjtnng ; 
aber fo, wie in Spanien, bat ft'e in feiner anbern 2Celtgc* 
genb gewütbet Die bebten ttcrgifjt mau, bie (Tc geopfert 
hat ; bie @efchled)ter ber 9)ienfchen erneuent ftct> wieber, 
unb auch bie Räuber blühen lieber, bie fte verheert unb ent* 
Detfert bat ; aber Sahrbunberte werben hingeben, ehe ihre 
Spuren an$ bem fpanifchen @l)arafter öerfchwinbciu dine 
gcijtreichc trcjfliche Nation hat jte mitten auf einem $3ege 
$ur SSolIcnbung aufgehalten, anß einem £nmmeteftriche, 
worin ft'e einheimifch war, ba$ ©enie verbannt, unb eine 
Stille, wie ftc auf ©räbern ruht, in bem ©eijte eineg 23olfö 
hintcrlaffen, ba3 üor fielen anbern, bie biefen 5öelttheil 
bewohnen, ^ur greube berufen war. 

£>en erjlen ^uquifttor fe^te $arl ber fünfte im 3aht 
1522 in Trabant ein. ©nige ^riefter waren ihm afä ($e* 
hülfen an bie Seite gegeben ; aber er fclbjt war ein $öelt* 
Itcf)er* Dtach bem £obe 2Jbrian3 be$ Sechsten be* 

1 Gram mar, § 281. 
16* 



186 



SELECTIONS FROM 



betete fein 9iad)fotger, § lernend ber (Siebente, bret> 
3nquifttoren für alte nieberlänbtfd)en ^romngen, unb tyanl 
b e r Dritte feiste biefe %a\){ wieberum hi$ auf gwei) herun* 
ter, weldje ftd) h\$ auf ben Anfang ber Unruhen erhielten. 
3m 3abr 1530 würben, mit 3ugiebnng unb (Genehmigung 
ber ©täube, bie (ibitte gegen bie Me%ex au3gefd)rieben, 
welche alten folgenben gum (Gruube liegen, unb worin and) 
ber Snqutjttton auöbrüdtid) s DMbung geflieht 3m 3al)r 
1550 falte ftcb $art ber günfte buref) ba3 fchnelle 
SOBadjätljum ber ©etat gelungen, biefc dbiHe gu erneuern 
unb sn fd)ävfen, unb hei) biefer (Gelegenheit mar e3, wo (Td) 
bie ©tabt Antwerpen ber 3nquifttion wiberfe£te, unb ihr 
and) glücHict) entging. 2lber ber (3ci]t biefer nieberlänbi* 
frf)eu Snqiuftticn war, nad) bem (Genius be3 iafötä, men* 
fchticfyer, al£ in ben fpanifcfyen üfteidjen, unb neef) hatte ft'e 
hin 2lu3länber, noch weniger ein Dominicaner vermaltet. 
3ur ifttcfytfrfmur bienten ihr bie (5'oifte, meiere Obermann 
rannte ; unb cheu barum fanb man ft'e weniger anftöfug, 
weil fte, fo jtreng ft'e aud) richtete, bod) ber ^Billfnhr weniger 
unterworfen fchien, xmb ftd) nid)t, wie bie fpanifdje 3nquü> 
tion, in (Gebeimmß hüllte. 

2lber eben biefer lefsteru wollte tyi)ili$p einen $ßeg in 
bie Dciebertanbc bahnen, weil jTc ihm ba$ gefd)idtcfte 2£erf* 
geug jn femt fd)ien, ben Qkift btefe3 2>olf£ gu fcerberben, unb 
für eine befpotifdie Regierung zubereiten, (ix fing bainit 
an, bie (Glauben^öerorbnungen feinet $ater£ $n fd)ärfen, 
bie (Gewalt ber 3nquifttorcn je mefyr unb mehr auö^ubchnen, 
i\)x Verfahren willfubrlicfyer, unb üon ber bürgerlichen ®e* 
ridht^barfeit unabhängiger $u machen. S?alb fehlte bem 
Tribunale gn ber fpamftyen 3nquifttion wenig mefyr, al£ ber 
Mahnte unb Donüuifaner. SSlofjer SScrbadtf war genug, 
einen Bürger anö bem ©d)oof?e ber öffentlichen Dfatbc, au6 
bem Greife feiner gamifie fyerau^ufreblen, unb ba$ 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 187 

fcbwäcfyfte 3 e »9»^ berechtigte $ur gofterung. $3er in bie* 
fen ©d)lunb l)inabftet, tarn nid)t lieber» 21lle $3ot)ltbaten 
ber @efe£e fyörten ihm auf» 3fytt meinte bie mütterliche 
(sorge ber @erecl)ttgfeit ntd)t mel)r. 3^»feitö bcr £öelt 
richteten ihn 25o3bcit mtb SQBafynjum nadf) ©efefsen bie für 
5Wcnfd)cn nid)t gelten. 9iie erfuhr ber Delinquent feinen 
Kläger, unb febr fetten fein Verbrechen : ein rucWofer teuf* 
Itfrfjer $uujtgriff, ber ben Unglücklichen $wang, auf feine 
Verfdjulbung $u ratfycn, unb im Üöafymöifee bcr golterpein, 
ober im Ueberbrujfe einer fangen lebenbigen Sßeerbigung, 
Vergebungen au^ufagen, bie vielleicht nie begangen, ober 
bem 9?irf)ter boef) nie befanut worben waren. Die ©üter 
ber Verurteilten würben eingebogen, unb bie Singeber 
burd) ©nabenbriefe unb Belohnungen ermuntert. Mein 
Privilegium, feine bürgcrlid)c ®ered)tigfeit galt gegen bie 
beilige ©ewaft. 3öen fte berührte, ben l)atte ber weltliche 
51rm verloren. Dicfem war fein weiterer Slntbcil an ihrer 
©ericfyt^pflegc verjtattet, afc mit ehrerbietiger Unterwerfung 
ihre ©enten^en $u volljtrecfen. Die folgen biefeö Snjlitute 
mußten unnatürlich unb fcfyrccflid) femt. Daö gan^e $cit* 
ftcfye ©litcf, fetbjt ba3 £cbcn be6 unbefdjoltcnen '»Ittanne^, 
war nunmehr in bie §änbc eineti jeben 9iid)t6würbigen ge* 
geben. 3eber verborgene geinb, jeber Leiber hatte je£t 
bie gefährliche £ocfung einer mietbaren unb unfehlbaren 
9^ad)e. Die Sicherheit beö (5igentbumd, bie 5öabrb,eit be£ 
Umgangs* war bal)in. 3111c 23anbe bc$ ©ewiunö waren 
aufgelöst ; alle be£ 23tut3 unb ber Ziehe* fön aujtecfenbeö 
Mißtrauen vergiftete ba$ gefeilige Zehen ; bie gefurchtere 
(Gegenwart cinc3 £aufcbcr3 crfdhrccfte ben SBüd im 31uge 
unb ben $lang in ber Äcble. 9Dtan glaubte an feinen reb* 
liefen 9ftann mehr, unb galt and) für feinen, ©uter 9tar)me, 
¥anbdmannfd)aftcn, Verbrüberungen, ($ibe felbft, unb 2111e$, 
roaö 9ftenfd)cn für l)eilig ad)ten, war in feinem $Bertr)e gc* 



188 SELECTIONS, ETC. 

fallen» — tiefem (gcfyicffalc unterwarf mau eine große blü* 
benbe .vxmbcfdftabt, wo fyunbertraufenb gefcfyäfttge 9!tten* 
fdjen burrf) ba£ einige S3anb be$ $ertraueng $ufammen* 
Ratten» 3eber unentbehrlich für jeben, unb jeber $wet)beu? 
itg, tterbädjtig* Wc burd) hm ®eijt ber ®ewinnfud)t 
aneinanber gebogen, unb auöeinanber geworfen burd) $urd)t. 
Sitte ®runbfä'ulen ber ©efettigfeit umgerifiTen, wo ($efellig* 
fett ber ©runb alieö &ben$ unb aller £auer tft. 

(Schiller.) 



SELECTIONS 

FROM 

GERMAN LITERATURE. 



PART IL POETRY. 



T>a$ ^obaunifroürmcfyem 

($tn Sobanuifnntrmcfyen faf, 
©eittcö (Bteruenfcbein^ 1 
Unbewußt, im weichen ©raf 
<5üteg 25 arbeit baut 3- 
£eifc frocf) au3 faiftem 9D?oo6 
Seine Siacfybarinn, 
(5üte $röt', t)erbci), 2 unb fcfyoß 
bß' ibr @ift auf fljtt. 
2ld) ! tva$ l)ab' trf) bir getban ? 
Dfaef ber 2öurm ibr $u. 2 
@9 ! fubr ibn ba6 Untbier an, 2 
28arum g(än$eft bn ? 



£er @fef unb ba$ q)ferb. 

(£injt trug auf feinem fd)inafen Stufen 
din (£fef eine ftf)tt>ere £ajt, 
£ie fäfyig war, ibn tobt $u brütfeit, 
(£in fcbig ^Pferb ging neben ü)m* £u baft 

1 Grammar, § 116.— 2 § 301. 



* 



190 SELECTIONS FROM 

2(uf beinern Diucfen nichts, fprad) baö geplagte £bicr ; 
£ilf, riebet *pferbd)en, fjttf ! irf) bitte bid), btff mir ! 

$öa$ helfen ! fagt ber grobe ©auf, 
l&u bift ber rechte ©äff, 1 bu bi|l ein wenig faul. 
£rag $u ! 2 — 3d) tferbe, liebet »pferb, 
£ie ?ajt erbrücft midi, rette nttdj ! 
£ie Syiiftc mar 13 ein (Spiel für Qid) ! 
3rf) VDttt nicht ! fprad) ba6 ^>ferb* 

Ättrjj unter bem gtt ferneren <&ad 
(Mag ber @fel. Sacf unb ^acf 4 
£ub man fogfeid) bem Wappen auf f 
£e3 Qrfefö §aut nod) eben brauf. 

(Gleim.) 



£>te bei)ben ^eifenben. 

©eöatter £bomag nnb fein treuer 

greunb 5Qctcf>eC gingen über 2anb. 

2luf halbem 3öege liegt was? 5 @rüne£ in bem Sanb. 

greunb £boma3 bebt e6 auf; 2 e£ war ein fchöner neuer 

Verlorner 6 Beutel ; @olb 7 barin. 

($r jtecft ihn ein ; 2 unb, mit vergnügtem Sinn, 

Sftuft Stiebet 8 au$ : 2 bk blanfen £re$>er 

Sinb beef) für un3 ein guter $ang. — 

gür nn$ ? fpridit £boma6 ; großen £anf ! 

gür m i cb, ©evatter, follt' id) meinten ! — 

£er Wahre febmeigt, unb bei)bc geben fort. 2 

©te fommen in ben 903a(b, unb bort 

Sehn fte erft einen £ite6, bann swet), bann bret) erf chemeu. 

1 ^U^6ift ber rcd)te (3CL\t, you're afinefdlow. — 2 Grammar, 
§301. Sense, pull away.— 2 § 259.— 4 Sacf iUtb ^aef, bag and 
baggage.' — 5 tt?a3 , something : inaecurate use of|the word.— - 
* § 146.— 7 mar undeistood — 8 9J2id)el, nominative. 



GERMAN L1TERATURE. 191 

Der arme Ztycmaö fürchtet Wloxb, 

Unb $ifd)eft 9Dttd)efn in bie £>fyren : 

©ettattergmann, mir ftnb fcerforen ! 

Widjt wir ; ^u ift baö recbte 2Öort, 

(Spricht 9D?id)ef, unb enttt>ifd)t. greunb £fyoma$ wirb ge* 
fangen, 

Unb muß $u feinem 23eute( langen. 1 
Höer feinen $öofyfftanb nidjt mit Slnbern tl) et ft 
Qat feinen greunb, wenn Ungfüd ifyn ereift. 

(Catel.) 



Die (Stufenleiter. 

din (Sperling fing auf einem 2(ft 
Die fettfte gfiege. Söeber (Streben 
9tod) jammern baff ; ffe warb gefaßt. 
2fd) ! rief fTe flebenb, (aß mid) (eben ! 
9?ein ! fprad) ber 9!ttörber, tu bift mein; 
Denn idf) bin groß unb £u bift ff ein. 

(£in (Sperber fanb ibn bei) bem (Sd)mau3. 
So retd>t wirb faum ein $(ob gefangen 
2ff3 Sunfer (Spa£. (55ie6, rief er au$, 
Wlid) frei) ! 2 2Baö bab' id) benn begangen ? 
9t ein! fprarf) ber 902 ö r b e r, bu bift mein; 
Denn id) bin groß unb Du bift Hein. 

<£in 3lbfer fab ben @aud) r unb fd)0ß 
Stuf ibn berab, 2 unb riß ben ^üden 
3bm auf. 2 #err $önig, faß mid) fo£, 2 
9tfef er ; bn bacfjt mid) ja in (Stücfen. 
9cein! fprad) ber 9#örber, bu bift mein; 
Denn id) bin groß unb Du bift Hein.] 

1 fangen, give up. — 2 Grarnmnr, § 301. 



192 SELECTIONS FROM 

<£t fcfym au ftc nod), ba fam im 9iit 
(£üt ^pfetl 1 ihm 2 burrf) bie SSntjt geflogen. 
Styrann, rief er bem 3äger $u, 
s Üöarum ermorbet mid) bein 23ogeu ? 
(£9! fpratf) ber ^örber, bu bift mein; 
Denn ict) bin groß unb Du bift Hein. 

(Pfeffel.) 



Der £ob nnb feine $anbibaten. 

£er @rbe mäcfytigjter Defpot 3 — 
Stfcfjt £mbttjkn$, nicfyt ®tambul6 $aifer 4 — 
Der gürjl 5 ber TOtternachr, ber 4 c b, 5 
Vcrfammeltc bie be*)ben Käufer 
Von feinem fcfywaqen Parlament. 
dlad) einem furzen Kompliment, 
@prad) er : <$$ fehlet 6 unfern Staaten 
3e|t ein Vetter : 2öer mtfcr -j)tcid) 
51m meijten 7 mel)rt, bem will irf) gfeirf) 
Daä 2fatt öerleibn. 36r 8 Kanbibaten, 5 
2Ber 3l)r aud) 9 fei)b, herbei) ! 10 — @r fcfywieg. 
Die ©td)t, ba$ gteber, unb ber Krieg, 
Verrannten ftrf) bcn 3Beg unb traten 
tylit bc$ Verbtenfle3 ebclm ©tolf 
Vor feinen £brou fcon (S&iäfbQ. 
3tjj bin, fpraef) jcber, 11 unter 5lllen 
Der treuftc 12 beiner Kronttafallen. 
Der (£rbball unb ba$ <£d)attenlanb 
^eugen e$. — Der (Sultan bliefte 

1 Grammar, §§ 111, 285.— 2 Compare § 96.-3 § 47.— 4 Arti- 
cle omitted betöre jfaifer by poetic;il license. Also see § 84. — 
5 § 84— 6 (§tf fehlet, there is ivanting.— 1 § 310.— 8 § 87.— 9 Wer 
auet), ivhoever. — l0 Preposition, with the sense of a verb in the 
imperative.— 11 § HO.— 12 § 133. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 193 

(Sie bnlbreitf) an. 1 £5er 9teicf)jtag fanb 
Die 2Ut$mal)[ frfrtt>er. 9iarf) ifmen rnefte 
T)ie Meiere $ejt a\x$ tfyrem @ig, 
9)?onarcf) ! rief fte 2 mit bitterm SBBt©, 
3cf) mitt mir fetbft nicfyt $Öeibrand) jtrenen ; 
^ sfflcin £ob jtefyt in ben 2itanei)en* 

2)er $önig fpraef) : £ie$ bebt ben (Streit ! 
Unb wollte, öott 3ufrieben fyeit, 3 
£a£ @f)renamt ber ^)e|t 4 öerfeifyen, 
2113 (Trf) ein frember ^ofhtlant, 
Qtin Doctor m ber ^etlfmtft, nafyte. 5 
(Sir, fpracfy er, 2 £)ir unb beinern 9?atbe 
Sit mein $erbicnjt fcfyott (cmgft begannt, 
/"ißen meinem glücHicfyen latente 
(*ntl)ätt ber $ird)l)of nnb bein (Staat 
(Scfyon mancfyeö bnnbert $ionnmente. — 
3nbcm ber gnrjt, mit bem (Senat, 
£en Antrag reiflirf) nberbaebte, 
(£rfd)ien ein neuer $anbibat, 
£er altem 3wijt ein (5nbe machte. 
(5r fab btöber nnr an ber £t)ür 
£en feltnen 9?angftrcit an 1 nnb laufte. 
9ta trat er »er 1 nnb fagte : (Sir ! 
25ift £n 6 gerecht, fo ttnrjt £n 7 mir 
©ewig ba£ @r$amt ^nerfennen ; 
£emt ade biefer ^ral)ler l)ier 
(Sinb ^>fufrf)cr gegen mieb $n nennen 8 
©fr lobert jtetä mein 25ranbaltar ; 9 
£tr tt>eib' idf jeben £ag jum gejte ; 
2)tt 6tfl e£, bem icf) jebeö 3<*br 
Qrm Dnfeenb §efatomben mäjte. — 

l Grammar, § 301.— 2 § 1 10.— 3 § 90.— 4 dative.— 5 jTcf) nafyte, 

reflexive verb.— 6 Sßtft 2)U, ifyou are.— 1 § 112. 8 § 252 

9 $ 107. 

17 



194 SELECTIONS FROM 

Gty, rief ber Scfyarf), fo fage botfj, 

2Ber bijt bn, grembttng ? ©ir !— -ein $otf). 

(Id.) 






£er bestrafte eingebübete ©obn. 

3m erften halben 3afyr, unb ftfjon 
©an$ fcotf ^fytfofopfyte, 1 
Mam grt^, ber fjoflfnunggfcotfe ©ofyn, 2 
$on ber Stfabemic. 1 

$aum f ommt er in ber Heftern $au$, 3 
Mvamt ber gelehrte 9D?ann 
S5ei) £ifrf) ber 2öei3t)ett ©cfjäfee 3 au$, 4 
Unb $eiget, n>a$ er fann. 

©eft, 5 fpricfyt er, wertbjter $err <papa, 
Sie fagen, e3 6 (Tnb $ tt> e t) 
©ebratne junge £uU)nd)en ba ; 
3rf) aber, e$ (Tnb b r e 9. 

^ityMi 7 eö (Tnb 6 ^roei) traten t)ter, 
Unb ein^ jtecft ja in $tr>et) ; 
Ergo, 1 fo $eigt bie Sogif mir, 
(5inb and) ber traten bret). 

$flecr)t fo, Derfe^t ber §err tyaya, 
©ott fegne bein 53emüf)n ! 
3<f) nefyme ben, 8 ben 9 bie 9ttama, 
9iimm bu ben britten fyin. 



1 Grammar, § 9—2 § 84 ._3 § 47._4 § 301.—5 ©eft, ü it not 
true? — 6 § 195. — 7 Latin term common in formal logic. The 
sense of atqui is, literally, but, or, here, it is true. Ergo means 
therefore. — 8 this one. — 9 that one. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. "& 195 

Daö ©rfjicffaf. 

211$ 5CT2ofe^ ctnft fcor ©Ott auf jenem 1 SSergc trat, 
Unb 3bn öon jenem ew'gen Dtotf), 
Der nnfer (Srf)itffal lenft, um größ're Äenntntß bat, 
Da warb ihm ber SBefefyf : <£x fottte öcn ben £öf)en, 
Vorauf er ftanb, fyinab m'$ (£bne 2 feiert. 
JOter flog ein flarer Duett» diu reifenber ©olbat 
(stieg bei) bem Duett öon feinem ^pferbe, 
Uttb trau!. Äaum mar ber Leiter fort, 
©o lief 3 ein Änabe öon ber §erbe 
3Racf) einem £ruuf an biefen Ort. 
@r fanb ben ©elbfatf bei) ber Duette, 
Der jenem t)ier entfiel, dx m§m it)n, unb entwirf). 
Vorauf narf) ehen biefer ©rette 
(£in ©ret£, geburft an feinem (Stabe, frfjlirf). 
@r traut* unb fefcre firf), um au^urufyen, nieber ; 4 
(Sein fcfywereg §aupt fanf gittcrnb in ba$ @ra£, 
$Bt$ e$ im (Srf)laf be$ altera 2aft 5 fcergaß. 
Snbefien fam ber Reiter wieber, 4 
SBebrofyte biefen $rei£ mit wilbem Ungejtüm, 
Unb forberte fein ©elb öon ü)m. 
Der 2llte frf)wört, er r)abe 6 9iid)t£ gefunben, 
Der 2llte flet)t unb weint, ber Leiter flurf)t unb brofyt, 
Unb jftrfjt ^utet^t mit irielen 5ßunben 
X>en armen Sitten wütfyenb tobt. 

5113 9D?ofeg biefeö fat), fiel er 7 bctxübt $u ($rben ; 
Dorf) eine (Stimme rief: £ier fannft X)U inne werben, 
2öie in ber üöeU firf) atte6 billig fügt : 
Denn wifp, e$ 8 bat ber ©rete, ber jetit im 25lute liegt, 
De$ Knaben SSater 5 einffc erfrfjlagen, 
Der ben öerlornen 9?aub batton getragen. 9 

(Gellert.) 

1 Here meaning a certain. — 2 § 150. Compare § 25. — 3 from 
laufen.— 4 § 30].— 5 § 47.— 6 § 258.— 7 § 112.— 8 § 195.— 9 § 281. 



196 SELECTIONS FROM 

Die Mat^e, bie alte Wlau$, unb bic junge 9D?au3. 
Ma%e. 
£)u atferliebjletf fteincä Zbiex ! 
$omm bod) ein wenig her 1 $u mir. 
3d) bin bir gar $u gut. 2 Äomro, baiS id) btd) nur fuße. 

3rf) ratfye bir'3, 3 Äinb, get)c nid)t ! 

Äafce. 
(So fontm bod) ! ©iefye, biefe 9iüffe 
©inb atfe beut, wenn id) bid) einmal fufie. 

Sunge 9D?au$* 
£) Butter ! fyöre bod), wie jte fo freunbltd) fpricfyt ; 
3d) gel) 

$inb ! gefye nid)t ! 

$ a g e. 
Slurf) btefe£ 3i*tferbrob unb anbre fd)öne (Sachen 
(35te6 id) bir, wenn bu fommfh 

Sunge 9ttau$. 
SEBa* fott id) machen ? 4 
D untrer, (a# mid) gefyn. 5 

«lt.« ÜÄatt«. 
$inb ! fag' id), gebe nid)t ! 

Sunge Waiiö. 
2Ba3 wirb fte mir benn tfyun ? 
$Md) et)rfid)eä ©eftdrf ! 

1 Grnmmar, § 301. — 2 3dl bin etc. / Zove theefar too much. — 
3 contraction of bir e$. 4 mttcfyen, to do. 5 contraction of 

gefjen. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 197 

'State. 

$omm, freutet 9tdrrd)en, fomm !— 

3unge tylanö. 
m\ Butter, btff! ad),adjl 
Sie würgt mid), ad), bte garfHge ! 

SCIte Sttau^ 
9hm tft'6 gu fpät, nun bid) ba3 Unglüd l)at betroffen. 
$8er (Trf) md)t warnen (aßt, l>at §ftffe nidjt ju hoffen. 

(,WlLLAMOV.) 



£er ^erfifrf)c Sauer mit grüd^ten. 

3u (griuatt 

SGBat einjt ein armer, fdjlerfjrer 5Ö2ann ; 
(Bein gan$ Vermögen roar ein ffetner ©arten, 
Sein gan$ Öefd)äft, ihn abzuwarten. 
din Dbfibaum, ber im ®ärtd)en ftanb, 
£rug grüd)te, weit nnb breit befannt ; 
Sie gtüfyten, fd)5n nnb groß nnb reid) an Safte, 
Der jebem Traufen Sinbrima, fd)affte. 
bringt, fprad) fein 9iad)bar, guter ^Dtann, 1 
(£tn Movhd)cn biefer grud^t nad) 3fpal)<m : 
£er Scfyad) ijlt teefer, bor' id) fagen, 
gm;gebtg nod) ba$u : %l)t werbet, gebet %ld)t; 2 
So t)iefe3 G)o(b nad) £aufe tragen, 
21(3 3br ber grüd)te Eingebracht. 3 

3e nun ! 4 Od) fottt' c3 fe(ber meinen,) 
@r fauft ein feiueö $örbd)cu ein, 
3>acft feine ftfjöne grud)t binein, 5 
Stimmt freubig 2(bfd)ieb tion ben Seinen, 

1 Grammar, § 84. 2 Appendix C. 3 § 281. 4 ^e mm, 

well!— 5 § 301. 

17* 



198 SELECTICOfS FROM 

Unb tritt ben 50öeg nad) Sfpaljan 

Wlit berrlidjen (Entmnrfen an, 1 

SOBte mit bem Beutel ©elb'3 fcom @d)acf)e 

@r £au$ unb ©arten größer madje. 

<&o fommt er, et)' 2 er'ö 3 benft, nad) 3fpaban, 

Unb melbet fTcf> be*)m Dbermarfcball an. 1 — 

tyflan fennt ben £of. $3er bringt, bem ftebu bie £buren 

offen ; 
3öer baben will, farnt lange boffen. 
£er SDtafcfyatt nimmt bie gruebt, nnb fuqe 3eit bernad) 
2Öirb nnfer guter Wlanw belehret, 
£aß feine SKajeptdt, ber <&d)ad), 
3n eigener ^erfon fein gangeö SDbjt tteqefyret, 
(£3 febr gelobt unb mehr begebret. 4 

(£t), guter ^erfer, meld)' ein ©IM !— 
(£r lauert auf ben 2fngenbticf, 
£em Äaifer glimpflid) gtt berichten, 
(£r fei) 5 ber 33auer mit ben grüd)tcn. 
<5r jMt ftcb in ben Saal, burd) ben ber $aifer gebt, 
23efcbaut bad präditige ©erätb, 
53egafft bie ©regen, bie fo flein t)icr jteben, 
Unb fiebt gittert im (Sdjwarm ein 3rc>crglein geben, 
<&q miggebaut, baß ft'cf) ber arme ÜRamt 
£e3 Sachen 6 ntcf)t enthalten fann. 
3um Unglücf war bie$ %\veva,kin ber ^inijlter. 
D3^tt frfjarfem S31idc, frauä unb büfter, 
(5d)ielt er ben grembfing an. (Ein ? löort, 7 
Unb nmtbenb fd)leppt bie $öacl)' ihn fort. 
3m Werfer (Tfet er nun, unb mag fein ©elb erwarten. 
(£r flud)t bem 35aume, 8 flucht bem ©arten, 8 
Unb flud)t bem ^aebbar, beffen Sflatl) 

1 Gram mar, § 301. — ' 2 eb' contraction of ehe.— 8 er'$ con- 
traction of er e£.— 4 §§ 280 and 281.— 5 § 258.— 6 § 91.— 7 din 
VDOrt, a word, i. e. he spoke a word. The same idiom exists in 
English.— 8 § 96. 






GEEMAN LITEEATÜEE. 199 

3fyn $u bem &d)ad) gefüfyret tyat. 

Dod) alleä glucfyen lann bie Sachen 

yiid)t ungefcfyebn, 1 nid)t befier machen, 

Gnu 3abr fliegt nad) unb nad) babtn, 

(2ldj ! eine lange 3ett für ein fo fur$e3 2ad)en !) 

Unb feine (Beck benft an ihn, — 

9hm fommt ^ie ^cit bcr grücfyte lieber, 
9[flan bringt bem (Scfyacf) bie fdjönften 2 bar, 
@;r rümpft bie 9iafe, fegt jTe nieber : 
3^ctn ! ba3 ijt feine grud)t wie im üerfloßnen 3a()r. 
$Ba3 für ein berrlid) £b]t bag tt>ar ! 
$3irb n>obl 3 ber 5!^ann $urüde fcmmen ? 
£at man ned) 9iid)t3 ttcn ibm vernommen ? 
$3o fam er bcr ? 4 tt>o ging er bin ? 4 
3X§te beigt er ? <55ebt : erfragt mir ibn. — 

9flan forfrfjt, unb l)6rt bie traurige ®cfdud)te. 
Der Äatfer fadit 06 bem Berichte, 
©ut ! bringt ibn ber, 3rfj will ibn febn, 
Den armen (geheim, (£g fott ibm bejfer gebn. 5 

Grr fommt. „ £e, guter greunb ! 3* weiß, »te Dtr'£ 
ergangen/' 6 
So fprirftf ber Scbad). „ G?$ t^nt mir teü, 1 
allein für Werfer, SDbjt, unb ßeit, 
Darfjt Du nun and), wa$ Dir beliebt, verlangen."— 

„ £err ! gieb mir, fagt ber arme Üttamt, 
din 33etf, ein (Bächen (saf^ 8 unb einen 2llforan." 
Der Äaifer fängt 31t 9 fachen an ! 
„2Ba$ fott 10 Dir SBett unb £al$ unb Stfforatt ?" 

„ Da£ Seil, bag irf) ben Dbjtbaum falle ; ]1 
Qa$ ©af$, e3 au^ufä'n, bamit auf feiner Stelle 

1 Participleused asan adjeetive. — 2 Grammar,§ 153. — 3 § 331. 
__4 § 333._5 e ^ f ß etc> ^ aAaW g0 i etler „fä him.— 6 § 281. — 
7 e$ tbltt mir £eib, / am somj for it. — 8 § 85.— 9 § 250. a. — 
10 § 266 : $&$ feil ? e/wÄoi wse v$ be ?— u § 255. 






200 SELECTIONS FROM 

yiidqtö roieber nxicfyfe ; unb ben Woran, 
Um einen üib barauf ^u 1 fcfyroören, 
Daß td) unb bie 2 mir angehören 
3eitfeben£ nie nad) §ofe ttieberfebren." 

(Nicolai.) 

"5. * 

Qeinxid) ber Vogler, 

Der $einb ijt ba ! bie &d)la<i)t beginnt ! 
$öob(auf juw ©ieg gerbet) ! 3 
(£ö 4 führet nng ber bejle tylann 
3m ganzen SSatertanb ! 

£eut 5 fitfyfet er bie $ranfbeit nicfyt, 
Dort tragen fte ihn ber : 6 
£eif, £einricfy ! $)cil Dir, £e(b unb 9ftann, 
3m eifemen ©ejftb ! 

©ein 3intli^ gtttbt üor (£brbegier 
Unb berrfcfyt ben Sieg berbei) ! 
©cfyon ijt um il)n ber (£b(en £chn 7 
mt ßeinocMnt befpri&t ! 

©treu 8 furchtbar ©trabten um 9 Dicf) f)er, 9 
©cfywert 10 in be3 $aifer$ £anb, 7 
Dag atfeö ti>bfxd)c ©efcbcg 
Den 11 roeg vorüber gel) ! 

5[öittfommen Zoo für'3 $atertanb ! 
$öenn unfer jmfenb £aupt 
©cfyon 12 23(ut bebecft, bann fterbcu wir 
mt SKuljm für'3 13 SSaterlanb ! 



1 Grammnr, § 250. e. — 3 bie, those who. — 3 ijcxbct), advcrb, 
in the sense of the verb berbei) fommt. — 4 § 195. — 5 comrnc- 
tion of fyeitte.— 6 § 301.— 7 § 47. — 8 contraction of ffreitC, im- 
perative mode.— 9 Itmbcr, preposition. — 10 § 87. — u him, i. e. 
Henry.— 12 ^e\U\ fcfyon, even thovgh.—™ für'$, für ba$, 



GERMAN L1TERATURE. 201 

2Öemt öor tm£ nurb 1 ein offneg gelb 
Unb mir nur £obte fefyn 
SfQeit um un^ frer, bann jTegen n>ir 
5Wit «Ruhm für'3 SBaterfanb ! 

Dann treten wir mit bofycm Schritt 
2fuf £eid)namen bafyer ! 
Dann jauchen n?ir im ©tegögefcfyrei) ; 
£)a3 ge()t burrf) 9D?arf unb 55ein ! 2 

Un3 preift 8 mit frohem Uugejtüm 
Der 25räutaam unb bie S5raut ; 
@r jTefyt mit 3 fyofyen gabnen mefyu, 
Unb brückt ifyr 4 fanft bte £anb, 

Unb fpricfyt $u ibr : Da fommen (Te, 5 
Die Äriegeggötter, 6 her ! 
<&ie jtritten in ber feigen ©cfykcfyt 
5lurf) für unö be»be mit ! 7 

Unö pretft, 8 ber greubentfyränen 9 fcotf, 
Die Butter unb ifyr $inb ! 
(Sie brückt ben Knaben an i()r §er$, 
Unb jTefyt bem Äaifer narf)- 7 

Un3 folgt ein ^uf)m, ber ema. bleibt, 
5öenn n>ir geflorben jmb, 
©ejtorben für ba3 $aterlanb 
Den ehrenvollen £ob. 

H (Klopstock.) 

1 tt)trb, there is. — 2 A proverbial expression, meaning that 

makes thorough work. 3 (Jr ficbt Itttt, he sees with olhers. 

4 Grammar, § 96.— 5 §§ 111, 285.— 6 § 84,— 7 § 301.— 8 § 266,— 
9 §§90, 116, 



202 SELECTIONS FROM 

Parabel 
33om (JufenfpiegeP unb ben ©cfyneibern. 

Unter kriefett löblichen Xfyatcn 
Die GhitenfptcgePä ^Mt^e geratben, 2 
3(1 eine üon fonberer 2efyr unb Eitlen, 
2Öie er bte sscfyteiber $urecfjt tf>at fhtt$ert. 3 

Vlad) ^ojtotf, ber berühmten ©tabt, 4 
55efd)ieb er fie $u gemeinem Dfatf), 
dv rootf ibnen etwad offenbaren, 
3Utf ewige Seiten gu bewabren, 
Dag jeber eö auf bie (Seinen vererbe, 
©ne große (Bad) 5 für üjr (bewerbe, 
Durcfy ein 2lu3fd)reiben gab er $unbe 
Den wenbifd)en 6 ©täbten in t>ie D?unbe, 
3n ^elftem, Sommern, hiö ©tetten 
9iad) SOBtfmar, ?übecf unb Hamburg fyüt. 
Die ©cfjneiber ramen in betten Raufen 
2Son ifyren 2ßerf ftätten fyergetaufen ; 7 
SBratfjt' jeber ©cfyer', (5ffc, SGabef, unb 3tt>irn, 
Unb p(agP im ttorau£ brob 8 fein ($ebirn, 
5Öa$ er borf) neueä i>ätt* erfonnen, 
Dag fte nod) nid)t gemußt nod) begonnen. 9 
W$ (Te nun warteten auf bem *pia&, 
(stieg @ulcnfpicgcl, ber fd)(aue gra&, 4 



1 Tyll Eulenspiegel was a merry German wight of the 14th 
Century, who perpetrated all sorts of frolics during his rambling 
life. He is the hero of many a German tale of fun, some true, 
but the greater numher probably the products of imagination. 
— 2 X)XC etc. which happened to EulenspiegeVs ivit. — 3 gliredtf 

tl)at ftUf$eU, confounded (the tailors) in fine style. 4 § 84. 

5 contraction of (B(lä)C, — 6 The Wends, a branch of the Scla- 
vonic race, settled in the northern and eastern parts of Ger- 
many.— 7 § 277.— 8 contraction of barob,— 9 § 281. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 203 

gret) hinauf 1 in ein hohes $)ai\$, 

Unb flaute oben $um genfter hinauf. 1 

@l)vhaxe 90?eifter ttom (Sdjnetbergewerfe ! 

(@o fprarf) er,) jeber hör' unb merfe ! 

§abt ü)r ©cfyeer', @ll' unb 9iabel gut, 

i)qu nocf) 3wtrn unb Fingerhut, 

@o fyabt ihr $u eurem §anbwerf genug ; 

£>a$ fcfyafft jldj jeber mit gutem $ug* 

2ln allem bem 2 ijt feine $unjt ; 

9£ur (£ine$, 3 bttt' irf), bemerft mit @unjt : 

2Öemt ü)r bie -ftabet l)abt eingeöbrt, 

<5o mad)t einen knoten, n>ie (Td)^ gehört, 

SCn'ö anbre (£nbe be3 gabenä red)t, 

^ag ihr umfonft ttiel ©titf)e nicht fte<fyt 

Denn, wenn ihr nicht ben knoten fnüpfr, 

Der Jaben euch 4 burrf) ba£ £ud) l)iufrf)(üpft ; 

@o bringt 3h? nimmer $u ©tanb 5 bie 9iatb : 

$erge$t eö nid)t: bieg ijt mein 9?ath* 

Die (Sd)neiber fafyen einanber an/ 
©prach jeber $u feinem 9tarf)bar£mann : 
2Bag ijt ba3 für 6 eine ^>f>antafet>, 
Dag er ung ruft fo weit fyerbet) ? l 
©d)on fange wußten wir biefe Äunft : 
Unfere Steife war gar umfonfh 

Der (Schalffnarr, at$ er folrf)e3 fal), 
©prad) : $Ba£ ttor 7 taufenb Sauren gefchab, 
Qie$ Q ijt oft niemanb eingebend ; 
Drum 9 feiner tylütye jTch feiner fränf. 
9lud) metmt' er, follten fte ftd) fcf)ämen, 
(Statt Danfö mit Unwillen aufzunehmen 

1 Grammar, § 301. — 2 bem isa demonstrative pronoun mean- 

ing that.— 3 (Sineö, onc thing.—* § 193.— 5 bringen $u ©taub, 

fo accomplish. — 6 § 171, note. — 7 ttor, ago. — 8 tic$ f genitive. 
See §§ 90, 116. — 9 contraction of fcarum» 



204 SELECT10NS FROM 

£tc Streu, 1 fo er 2 $um £anbn>erf trüge. 3 
<§c fehltet) er ftcf> fort 4 auf neue 3üge. 

(A. W. Schlegel.) 



©Ute ftadjk 
Altern 5 fdfyöne gute 9?acf)t, 
$3aö ba fcfytäft, unb n>aö nocfy rcacfyt : 
Ätnbern gofb'ne 2öeif)narf)tö bäume, 6 
Knaben $ampf'$*unb 9)?inneträume, 
Jungfrau'« reiner UnfcfyuCb »alten, 
Diestern, gtängenbc ©eftaften, 
füttern au$ propfjet'frfjem 23ronnen 7 
Sfyrer $ inber fünffge Sonnen, 
Männern f)or)cr ir;aten S&tofynung, 8 
©reifen nabeö grtebe^ Stynung ; 8 
Ottern fdjöne gute 9tad)t, 
SGöaö ba frfjtäfr, unb n>aö notf) n>ad)t ! 



(FoiTQUE.) 



Stöetn $ater(anb. 
So ijt beä ©ängerö SSaterfanb ? 8 — 

So ebfer ©eifter gunfen 8 fprüfyten, 

So dränge für ba$ Sdjöne 6fttf)ten, 

Joe jtarfe bergen freubig gtüfyten, 

gür atfe$ Zeitige entbrannt. 
Da war mein SSaterfanb ! 

i Contraction of £rcue. s fo er, which he, i. e. Eulen- 
spiegel : fo, relative pronoun, § 167.— 3 contributed. — 4 §301 — 
5 to every body.— 6 alludine to the German custom of preparing 
what is called the Christinas tree, hung with presents for the 
children of the family.— 7 I take this word to be meant for 
Grumten. Probably the passage alludes to some superstition 
concerning the prediction of fortunes from a well. — 8 § 47. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 205 

2Bte beißt be6 ©äncjerS SBaterfanb V — 
3e£t über feiner ©öfyne ^eic^en, 1 
3e#t weint eö nnter frembcn (Streichen ; 
©onjt fyieß e$ nur baö £anb ber Qricfyen, 
Da3 frei>e tob, bag bentfcfye 2anb. 

(Bo fyieß mein Saterlanb ! 

2Ba3 2 meint beg (Sängerg 2Sater(anb ? — 

2>ag »or beg 3öütbrtd)ö Ungewtttem 1 

Die gnrften feiner 23ötfer gittern, 

Dag ihre fyeü'gen 2Borte fptittern, 

Unb bag fein 9htf fein frören fanb* 
Drum 3 weint mein SSaterlanb ! 

UÖem rnft beg (sängerö $ater(anb ? — 
HU rnft nad) ben öerjtnmmten (Mottern ; 
tylit ber SSergweiflung Donnerwettern, 
9iad) feiner grcptyeit, feinen Rettern, 
Vlad) ber SSergettung Mcfyertyanb, 1 

Dem rnft mein Sßatertanb ! 

2Ba3 wi(( beg (sängerg SSaterlanb ?— 
Die $ned)te witf eö nieberfcfyktgen, 
Den 23httl)unb au$ ben ©rängen jagen, 
Unb frei) bie freien 6öbne tragen, 
£>ber fret) ft'e betten imter'm ^anb, 

Qaö will mein SSaterlanb ! 

Höaö hofft be$ ©ängerä $ater(anb ?— 

(£3 fyofft auf bie gerechte (Sacfye, 

frofft bag fein treuem Soff erwache, 

frofft anf be$ großen @otte3 Dtocfye, 

Unb b,at ben 3?ärf)er nid)t öerfannt* 

Dranf 4 t)ojft mein Saterkmb ! 

(Körner.) 

1 Grammar, § 47. — 2 § 201, note. — 3 contraction of baWttU 
4 contraction ol baraitf. 

18 



'206 SELECTIONS FROM 

ZvinHieb ttor ber <&(fyläd)t. 

©djfarfjt, ®u brttf)(t an ! 
©rügt fte in freubtgem greife, 
2aut nacf) (Mermamfcfyer ÜBetfe. 

SBrüber, fyeran ! 

9?od) perft ber 2Bcm ; 
(£!)' bte ^pofaunen erbröfynen, 
£ag un£ t>a$ £e6en öerfötynen. 

trüber, fdjenft ein. 

©Ott SBater l)ört 
$ßad an be£ ©ra&eö £boren 
$atertanb3 ©ohne gefdniooren. 1 

trüber, 3I)r fcfyrcört ! 

SSaterfanb'ä $>ovt, 
2Bol(en ttur'3 au$ afttbenben Letten 
£obt ober ftecjenb erretten. 

£anbfd)taa, nnb 2öort ! 2 

£ört Stjr ffe na()it ? 
Stefce, nnb greube, nnb Reiben ! 
£ob ! 2Ht fannjt un£ nid)t [Reiben. 

trüber, (logt an ! 

©cfyfadjt 3 ruft ! btnauö ! 
S^ovd), bte trompeten werben. 
SBortüärtä, auf 2e6en unb Sterben ! 

trüber, trtnft auö ! 
(Id.) 

1 Grammar, § 281.— 2 jpanbfcfyfaa, Ultb 5öort, an expression 
denotiog a kind of oalh, here are our hand and ivord for iL — 
3 article omitted bef'ore @cf)(ad)t by poetical license. 



GERM AN LITERAT ÜRE. 207 

©eijHtcfye lieber. 

III. 

38er 1 einfam ft£t in fetner Jammer, 
Unb frfjroere bittre Tratten weint ; 
$3em nnr gefärbt fcon 3^ott) nnb Sammer 
Die 9iarf)barfrf)aft umfyer crfcfyeint ; 

^Ber 1 in ba$ S5i£t> vergangner Seiten 
5öie tief in einen Ibgrunb ftet>t, 
3n roelrfjem ifyn Don allen ©eiten 
(£in füßeö ^Xöet) hinunter $iebt ; — 

(£ö ift al3 Tagen. $Bunberfrf)ä£e 
Da nnten für ibn aufgehäuft, 
3^arf) beren (scfylof? in roilber £>e£e 
5l^it atbeinlofer 23rujt er greift 

Die 3uf nnft liegt in ober Dürre 
($ntfe$ltrf) fang unb bang r>or it)m, 
(5r fcfyroeift nmber, allein nnb irre, 
Unb furf)t ftd) felb|l mit Ungejtüm. 

2>rf) fall' ihm wetnenb in bk 3lrme : 
2lud) mir roar einjr, wie bir $u 9D?utl}, 2 
Dorf) irf) genap tton meinem £arme, 
Unb m'xfy nun n>o man eroig ruht 

Xiid) muß, roie mirf), ein 5öefen tröften, 
Qae 3 innig liebte, litt, unb jlarb ; 
Das 3 felbjt für bie, bk 4 ü)m am roefyjten 
@etban, 5 mit taufenb greuben ftarK 

<£v frarb, unb bennorf) alle £age 
SSermmmfr Du feine Heb' unb ibn, 



1 $öer refers to tt)lt in the third stanzu.— 2 $U tyftuttye fei)U, 
tofeel. — 3 1)<x3, relative pronoun. — < the first bie is a demon- 
strative, the second a relative, pronoun. — 5 Grammar, § 281. 



208 SELECTIONS FROM 

Unb fannjt gerroft in jeber ?age 
3fyn äärtftd) in bte 2(rme ätebn* 

Wlit tym fommt neneg 25tut unb Zehen 
3n beut geilorbeneö ©ebein : 
Unb wenn Du ü>m bein £er$ gegeben, 1 
©o ift aucfy feinet ewig betn, 

$ßag Du fcerforjt, bat er gefnnbcn ; 
Du trtpt bet> it)m, waö Du geliebt r 1 
Unb emig bleibt mit Dir t>erbunben 
Sß3aö feine $anb Dir nnebergiebt 

(Novalis or F. von Hardenberg.) 



©etjHicfye lieber, 

XIII. 

3Benn äs bangen trüben ©tunben 
Unfer Syx% betntal) tter^agt, 
5Öenn Don Äranffyeit übentmuben, 
2(ngjt an unferm Innern nagt, 
SGßtr ber £reugeliebten benfen, 
5öie ffe @ram unb Kummer brücfr, 
5öotfen unfern Zßüd befcfyränfen, 
T>ie fein £>offnung£(trab( burcfybu'cft — 

£> bann neigt ft'rf) (55ott herüber, 
©eine ?xebe fomm unö nafy, 
©ebnen mir untf bann hinüber, 
(Steht fein (£nge( öor ttn6 ba, 
SSringt ben Äcfct) be3 frifcfyen £eben$, 
Sifpeft Sftittb unb £roft un$ ^u, 2 
Unb wir beten mcfyt ttergebeng 
2lurf) für bie ©ettebten D?uf), 3 



(Id. 



1 Grammar, § 281.— 2 § 301.— 3 § 47. 



GEBMAN LITEEATUEE. 209 

Tiaö S5fitmrf)cn SßBunberfjolb. 

& btüfyt 1 ein SSlümrfjen irgenbmo 
3n entern (litten Zhal, 
£)a$ fcfymeirfjeft 2lug' unb £er$ fo froh, 
5ß3te 2tbenbfonne*©trabl ; 
£a3 tft ötet föpü'd^er atö ©otb, 
Site ^erl' unb Diamant ; 
£rum 2 wirb cö „ 23(ümd)en SßBiutbevbofo" 
9Dßtt gutem gug genannt, 

3ßot)( fange ftdf ein lauget Zieb 
SSon meinet SSfiintdjenö Äraft ; 4 
$öte e£ an $eib unb an ©cmütl) 
©o t)ot)e f iÖuuber fcfyafft. 
^B3aö fein gefyeimeS (£(triv 
Sir fouft gewähren fann, 
£;a3 reiftet traun mein 23(ümdjen £)ü\ 
5D?an fäty- e3 Um nid)t an. 5 

£er 6 3Bunberf)oft> im S5ufcn fyegt, 
2Btrb roie ein (£ngct fdfyön : 
£a£ bab' id), innig(id) 6ett>cgt, 
2fn 9Dtamt unb Sei6 gefetm. 
2üt üftann unb 2öetD, alt ober jung, 
Siebte n>ie ein gaftfmdit, 
£er fd)6nflen Seelen §.ulbigung 4 
Umtriberftebttd) an, 7 

2(uf ftetfem &$fg ein Stro^erbaupr, 
<£a6 über atte £)©$«, 
%Qeit, weit tynavtä $u ragen glaubt, 
2äf?t bod) gewig nid)t fd)ön. 8 

1 Gram mar, § 195. — 2 contraction of barUttl«— 3 fäuge fld), 
subjunetive : might be sung. — 4 § 47. — 5 man fät)' etc., one would 

not suppose it. 6 relative pronoun : whosotver. 7 § 301. ■ 

8 (ägt Uid)t fd)Ön, efoes no/. /oo& well. 
18* 



210 SELECTIONS FROM 

2Benn irgenb nun ein *Kang, wenn @ofb 
3u fteif ben ^arö £ir gab, 
(so fcbmeibigt ihn mein $3unberf)olb 
Unb biegt betn fyavupt fyerab* 1 

(5$ webet 2 über bein ©e(Td)t 
£>er Sfamutb Dfofenflor ; 3 
Unb $iebt be3 2htge3 grellem 2id)t 3 
Die Wimper mtfbernb üor. 1 
(£3 tbertt ber gtöte weichen ßtang 1 
£eS (scfyreperä £eb(e 3 > 4 mit, 1 
Unb wanbett in 3eptn;rengang 
£e£ Stürmer^ ^oltertritt, 1 

£er Staute 4 gleicht ber $J?enfd)en £er$, 3 
3u Sang unb StiaxiQ gebaut, 
Dorf) fpiefen fte 5 oft ?u|t unb Scf)mer$ 6 
3u ftürmifrf) unb $u taut : 
Der 8rf)mer$, wann (£bre, 5ftarf)t, unb ©elb 
23or beuten döünfdjen fliebn, 
Unb ?uft, wann fie in beinern Sofb 
5D2xt Siegesfränaen $tel)it. 7 

£) wie bann ÜÖunberMb ba$ £er$ 8 
So milb unb (ieblid) ftimmt, 
$öie altgefällig (5m ft unb Scfyera 6 
3n feinem 3auber fcbwimmt ! 
$öie man aläbamt 9iirf)t6 tbut unb fprtcfyr, 
Drob 9 3emanb giirnen rann ! 
Dag macht, man tro$t unb pecfyet nicfjt, 
Unb brängt firf) nicfyt öoran. 

i Grammar, § 301. — 2 § 195.— 3 § 47.— 4 Dative.— * Accusa- 
tive Singular. — 6 § 45. — 7 gießen in Solb, literally to comeunder 
pay. — 8 Accusative case. — 9 contraction for barob, used inac- 
curately in the relative sense about which. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 211 

£> rote man bann fo rooblgemurr), 
©o frieblitf), lebt unb webt l 
2Bte um ba3 £ager, wo man rufyt, 
Der 6d)laf fo fegnenb fcfymebt ! 
Denn ^Bunberbolb bält alleä fem, 
2Ba£ giftig beigt nnb ftirfjt ; 
Unb ftärf)' ein s 3Mrf) and) norf) fo gern, 1 
©o fann nnb fann 2 er nicfyt 

3rf) fing', o lieber, glaub* e3 mir, 3 
9tid)t3 au$ ber gabclroelr, 
Iföenn gleirf) ein folcf)e£ 2Öunber Dir 
gajl: hart $u glauben fällt 4 
9D?ein ?teb ijt nur ein $Öieberfd)eüt 
Der §immetelieblid)fett, 
Die 5 2öunberbolb auf ©roß unb Äletn 6 
3n £t)im unb 2fiefen 7 ftrcut* 

2lcf) ! fyätteft Du nur bie 8 gerannt, 
Die einjt mein ,ftleinob war — 
(Der £ob entrig \ie meiner §anb, 
£art l)interm 9 Traualtar — ) 
Dann nmrbejt Du e$ gan$ tterjtebn, 
$Öa3 28unbert)olb öermag, 
Unb in baö %id)t ber 2Babrbeit f e ^, 
$öie in ben fetten £ag* 

2öobl 10 bunberrmabf fcerbanF irf) if>r 
De3 25lumd)en3 <Segen3flor : n 



1 ail&j UOrf) fo gern, with ever so good will—* I take the re- 
petition of fantt to be emphatic, denoting, with all his effort he 
cannot.— 3 glaub' e$ mir, believe me. — 4 fällt Dir, strikes you 
as. 5 Relative pronoun, aecusative case, meaning which. 

6 ®rog unb $lein, high and low.— 7 £bun unb äöefen, idio- 

matic expression, meaning the whole condud. — 8 t)ie r aecusative, 
meaning her.— 9 contraction of l)iuter bem, — 10 3öor)f,/uM.— 
11 Grammar, §47. 



212 SELECTIONS FROM 

(Sanft fd)ob fte'3 in ben Hilfen mir 1 
3urücf, 2 mann td) '3 fcertor. 
Sefct rafft ein @etjt Doli Ungefcutb 
(£g oft mir an3 ber SBrnft, 
Grrjt mann irf) büße meine (Scfynfb, 
25eren' td) ben SBertufh 

D roae 3 be3 SBfömdjenS 2L>nnberfraft 4 
3(n ?ei6 nnb an ©emntf) 
3l)r, 5 meiner £o(bmn, etnjt öerfcfyafft, 
gäßt nid)t ba6 (änqjte ?ieb ! 
38eiPö 6 me()r 7 al$ ©eibe, *perP, nnb ®olb 
2>er (Scfyönbeil 8 3ier verleibt : 
(So nenn' irf)'3 „ 23fümd)en $Jnnberl)oib /y 
(Eon jl fyetfjt'$ — 23 e f d) e i b e n b e i t 



(BÜRGEB.) 



90?nttertänbetei). 

(&cht mir bod), mein fcfyöneä $inb, 
mt ben golbnen 9 fott&ioädxn, 
Alanen Singen, rotben SSäcfcfycn ! 
?entd)en, babt 30t* and) fo ein£ ? 10 
£entdjen, nein ! 3fyr fyabet fcütö ! 

(Sel)t mir bod), mein füßcö Ämb ! 
getter, a(3 ein fettet (Sdmccrcfyen, 
(Süffer, ate ein 3nderroecftbcn ! 
geutcfyen, babt Sfyr and) fo eind ? 
2entd)en, nein ! 3br l)abet feind ! 

1 Grammar, § 96.— 2 § 301.— 3 Accusative.— 4 § 47.— 5 Dative 
Singular feminine of er. — 6 $BeiP$, contraction of ttfetf e6 : 
Cj3 nominative to verleibt — 7 Adjective, agreeing vvith 3ier. — 
8 Dative case.— 9 § 132.— 10 fo ein3, such an one. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 



2] 3 



©efyt mir botf), mein fyolbeS $inb l 
9ttd)t su mürrifrfv nicfyt $u mä'blig ! 
Smmer freunblirfv immer fröblich; ! 
?cutd)cn, habt 3br aurf) fo eins ? — 
Seutdjen, nein ! 3br I)abet feinS ! 

@et)t mir bocb), mein frommes $inb ! 
Äetnc bttterböfe (Sieben 1 
2öürb' tt)r 9ttütterd)en fo lieben, 
^eutcfyen, möchtet 3br 2 fo eins ? — 
£) ! 3fyr friegt gemig mcfyt memo ! 

$omm' 3 einmabt ein Kaufmann fyer ! 
^mnberttaufenb Manfe Z bater, 
Sitte* ©ofb ber (£rbe, %a\)V 3 er ! 
£> ! er friegt gemiß nicfyt meinS ! — 
Äauf 3 er jld) mo anberS 4 eins ! 



(Id.) 



£)te £ugenb* 

greunb ! bie £ugenb ijt fein leerer Stfafyme, 
2lu£ bem £er$en feimt beS ©Uten 5 <5aame, 
Unb ein ©ort i(Vö Q ber 7 ber 25erge ©pi§en 8 
9?ötf)et mit SMtfcen* 

2aß ben $re*)geijt mit bem inimmet fcfyeqen, 
galfcfye 2et)re fliegt aus böfem £er$en, 
Unb $eracr)tung att^u jtrenger ^}flid)ten 
£nent für 3Serrid)ten. 

9fad)t ber ftodjmutb, nicfyt bie (Eigenliebe, 
9Rein ! öom £immel eingepflanzte triebe 

1 Nominative. — 2 möchtet 3br r should you like ?— 3 Impera- 
tive mode. — 4 tt)0 anberS, somewhere eise. — 5 ©Uten isthe gen- 
itive, an adjective nsed as a noun. See, moreover, § 47.— 
6 ijt'S contraction of ijt e£» — 7 ber, relative pronoun. — 8 § 47. 



214 SELECTIONS FROM 

?eftren ZuQcnt), 1 unb t>a$ if>rc $rone 
©elbjt fte 6efoI)ne. 

3fT$ 2 SfcrfteHimg, bie un$ fetöfl Befampfet 
Die be$ 3äf)gornö $cncr*8tröme bämpfet, 
Unb ber Ziehe t>ief $u fanfte gtammen 
3nnngt su tterbammen ? 

3ft eg Dummheit, ober gtft be$ 2öetfeu, 
Der bte £uantb rühmet in bcu ($tfen, 3 
Degen 4 SBangen, mitten in bem (sterben, 
9tte (Td) entfärben ? 

Sft e3 £borbett, bie bie £er$en btnbet, 
Daß ein jcber (Td) im anbern ftnbet, 
Unb sunt £ößa,etb feinem tt>at)reu greunbe 
©titr$t in bie geinbe ? 

pttt ben gitu^ 1 (gfjrfudjt mit Erbarmen, 
Der ba$ Un^fücf l)ebt mit milben Ernten, 
3öetnt mit anbern, unb fcon frembeu Ruthen 
^Bürbigt ^u bluten ? 

©elbjt bie 25ogfyeit ungesäumter Sugettb 
$ennt ber @>Qtfyeit 25i(bnij5 5 in ber £ugenb, 
S)a$t baö Ö)itte, unb muß watyre Reifen 
§eim(id) bod) preifen» 

3tt)ar bie ?after blühen unb ttermefyren, 
@eü) bringt ®ntcr, Grtorfitdjt fitbrt ^n (Sfyren, 
S3ogbeit t)errfd)et, 6d)mctd)ler betteln (Knaben, 
£ua,euben fdjaben* 

Dod) ber Stirnrad hat nod) feine Äinber ; 
gromme leben, fennt man fie fdjon minber ; 

1 Accusative. — 2 contraction of ijt e£. — 3 I take this word to 
be the plural of ba3 (£i$. — 4 I transcribe this pronoun, as I find 
it, in the singular, thougli the plural wouid seem more accw- 
rate. — 5 Grammar, § 47. 






GERMAN LITERATURE. 215 

®olb nnb perlen fmbt man bei) ben bohren, 
ÜBeife Bei) £t)oren. 

$n$ ber £na,enb fliegt ber wafjre griebe, 
<B3o(fojt efeCt, 9?eirf)tbnm marf)t un$ mi'tbe, 
fronen brücfen, (Sfyre blenbt nicfyt immer, 
£na,enb fehlt nimmer» 

Drnm, 1 o Danton, gebt'ö mir nirfjt 2 narf) üöillett, 
©o wiii irf) mirf) gang in mirf) öerl)üllen, 
bitten Reifen ffetbet £etb n?ie grcube, 
£ua,enb giert bei)be. 

3n>ar ber ÜBetfc roäfylt nid)t fein ©efchirfe, 
Dorf) er nxnbet (5lenb felbft $um ©lütfe ; 
gällt ber fcimmel, 3 er fann $Öeife becfcn,* 

316er nirf)t fdjrecfett. 

(Haller.) 



Deö 5!Käbd)cnö £lage. 

Der @irf)tt>atb branfet, 
Die $öo(fen giebn, 
Qaö 9D?äablem jT£et 
5(n Uferö $ritn, 

dö bvidjt firf) bie SBelle mit 50?arf)t, mit tyladjt, 
Unb (Te fenfst binau6 in bie fmjtre Sftadjr, 
Da^ 5Miuje öom deinen getrübet* 

1 Contraction for bantm. — 2 gebt'ö mir nirf)t, «/t* cfoes not 
ivith me. — 3 fällt etc. ifthe sky falls. 

* " Sifractus illabatur orbis, 
Impavidum ferient ruinae ' 

Horace, Carm. L. III. 0.3.1.7,8. 



216 SELECTIONS FROM 

„ Qaö £er$ iff gefforben, 
Die SDBcft iff teer, 
Unb weiter giebt fte 
Sern 2öimfdje ntcf)^ meF)r* 
2)u fettige, rufe beitt Ämb ;urütf, 
3d) l)ak genoffen baö irbifcfye ($Hücf, 
3df) ^abe gelebt unb geliebet !" 

(5ö rinnet ber £fyränen 
Vergeblicher ?auf ; 
Die $lage, ffe werfet 
Die lobten mcfff auf; 
Dod) nenne, toa$ tröffet unb Reifet bie Vruff 
9cad) ber fügen ?iebe entfdjnntnbener £uff, 
3dl), bie fyimmfifdje, nritt'S nicht tterfagen. 

2aß rinnen ber ordnen 
Vergeblichen ?auf ! 
@ö werfe 1 bie $(age 
Den lobten ntcfjt auf ! 
Qaö füßeffe (SHücf für bie trauernbe 33ruff, 
3fcad) ber fcfyönen SteSe üerfcfynmnbener 2uff, 
©inb ber 2iebe ©cfymer$en unb klagen» 

(Schiller.) 



51 n bte Deutfdjen. 

ßennt 31>r baS Soff, ba$, feff wie feine (£icf)en, 
Unb feurig, wie fein ^ebenfaft, 
3m bfut'gen $ampf, fübn mit §eroenfraft 
T)en Körner $wang, 2 an$ fremben ©au $u meieren. 

$ßie fyeißt ber £ietb, ber Storno' Legionen 
din 2toter(anb3erretter fd)tug ? 

1 Subjunctive, Grammar § 260. — 9 Agreeing with bciö in the 
first line. 



GERMAN LITERATURE. 217 

(Bein Mahnte lebt in Äfopjtotf'g Dbenflng, 
Unb ewig Mütjn be£ Sieger^ ^orbeerfronen- 1 

<§:$ ijt ba$ SBolf, bem bie Tiatnv bett (Stammet 
£e3 SMcberjmnä tief etngebrnef t, 2 
2)a$ nie jTd) feig in frembe^ 3od) gebndr, 2 
ftetf fd)immernb in ber 2Öeltgefd)id)te £empcL 3 

@ö tft baS SBcIf ber fretben nnb ber Reifen, 
£a$ fein sweijbenttg (Mb beth/örr, 
£)er breite Sdmntr bunbbrncfyig nie entehrt, 
£>otf) nnbengfam, wie feiner ?anjen @ifeiu 4 

gret) tme bie £nfr, nnb feinet 2ajter3 Scfatte ! 
©o prie3 e$ einjt ein Zacitü$, 
£>ir, ftof$e3 Sftom ! ein ftrenger ®ening, 
Unb bem tterberbren 3 c ^geifl eine (Strafe ! 

d$ ift ba3 Soff, ba$, feiner Gräfte 50tetffcr, 
^ntfagenb ber Eroberung, 
8id) frei) erhob mit hohem 2lbterfd)ttnmg, 
Unb Sieg erfocht in bem ©ebiet ber ®eifter. 

(53 ift ein Sutbcr unter ihm erftanben, 
£er mit bem Sdjrocrt ber iftebe febfng ; 
Sein fitfyner ($ci\~t, entfd)(ei)crnb 9ftond)3 betrug, 
9frg £entfd)(anb atu? beö 2lbergfanben3 ^anben. 3 

(£in griebrid) war an6 Scermann^ 1 23eff geboren, 
£a6 2önnber jcber getge^eit ; 

1 The poet here refers to a German general named Armin- 
ius, or Hermann, who for some time made a heroie stand against 
the Romans, and gained a celebrated victory over the pro- 
consul Varus. He died by poison, A. D. 19, at the age of37. 
The poem of Klopstock, to which allnsion is made, is entitled 

^crmamt'Ö Sd)(ad)t, the battle of Arminiiis. ' 2 Grammar, 

§ 281. — 3 § 47.— 4 Article omitted before (Stfen by poetical li- 
cense. 

19 



218 SELECTIONS, ETC. 

23or fernem SHufym ftttft in 25ergcflfenl)cit 

2ßa£ 6rf)meid)e(et) ^um ®öfcen fid) erfüren. 1 

3fyr 2 ©öfyne 3 £eutS ! 4 erfennet eure 2tynen— 
£)ie dxhen ber Unfler6Itcf)fett — 
5tt biefem 23i(b ! lagt bie Vergangenheit 
9ttdf)t frurfjtfoS @ucfy $u gleichen Saaten mahnen ! 

(MüCHLER.) 

1 Grammar, § 281.— 2 § 87.— 3 § 84.— 4 Teut or Tuiscon was 
supposed by the ancient Germans to have been the founder of 
their nation. From Teut comes the adjective Teutonic. 



VOCABULARY. 



VOCABULARY 



N. B. In this Vocabulary the following abbreviations are employed : 
art. for article, s. for Substantive, m. for mascutine, f. for feminine, 
n. for neuter, a. for adjeetive, pr. for pronoun, v. for verb, v. a. for 
active verb, v. n. neuter verb, v. r. reflexive verb,part. for participle, 
ad. for adverb, pre. for preposition, i. for interjeetion, c. for conjunc- 
tion, dimin. for diminutive, indec. for indcclinable. Adjectives are 
not marked as adverbs, but it should be remembered that every 
adjeetive may be used adverbially. (See Grammar, § 305.) Every 
verb not marked as a. or n. is both active and neuter. 



A. 



316, ad. off, of,from, down. 
3l6art, f. varißty, degeneraey. 
Wbcntymdit,n.eveningclouds. 

rotb r n. evening redness. 

fegen, m - evening prayer. 

fontte, f. the setting sun. 

2(benfc)£ r ad. in the evening. 

316er, c but. 

3(bcrg(au6e, m. superstition. 
216er lltafö, ad. again,once more. 
Slbgrttnb/ na. afy/ss, chasm,pre- 

cipice. 
^töfyeffett, v. a. to help down, to 

help, to remedy. 
TOüfett, v. a. to loose, to take 

off, to separate, to redeem, to 

relieve, to exchange. 

19* 



2(6ma[)(en / v. a. to portray, to 

depict. 
3(6ttet)mett, to take leave. 
216fcf)teb / m. discharge, depart- 

ure, the act of bidding fare- 

ivell. 
2(6fcf)tt>6ren / v. a. to take an 

oath, to abjure,forswear, 
2l6fonbem, v. a. to separate, 

to secrete. 
2(6|tatten / v. a. to pay, to make, 

to render. 
2J6jl:er6ert, v. n. to die,to be ex- 

tinguished. 

3l6tntmugfetr, f. apostasy. 

tyLbwaxtetl, v. a. to ivaitfor, to 
aitend to. 



222 



VOCABULARY. 



2l6tt)ed)fettt, v. n. to take place 

allernately. 
2f6tt>etfen, v. a. to send away, 

to refuse. 
3f6tt>eitbett, v. a. to tui-n aivay, 

to avert, to dissuade. 
2*rf),i. alas! 
Elcfyt, f. attention, care. 
Slcfyteit, v. a. to attend, to re- 

gard, to mind. 
Sttel, m. nobility. 
SIber, f. a vein, a blood-vessel. 
2ft>ter, m. ihe eagle. 
frf)tt>img, m. an eagle's 

ascent. 
Slbricttt, a man's name. 
3lflFeCt, m. affection, passion. 
Slfrifa, Africa. 
Stfrtfantfd), a. African. 
Slfyn, m. ancestor. [ish. 

Slfynbdt, v. a. to resent, to pun- 
Sfefynltd), a. litte, similar. 
2l()mmg, f. presage. 
^Ifabemic, f. academy. 
^tfermtber, a man's narne. 
Sdforan, m. Me froran. 
5(ffangcn6ttcfÜd),ad. momenta- 

rily. 
SlKer, e, e3, a. all, whole. 
mitteilt, a. alone, onhj. c. but. 
Sltterbing^, ad. quite, perfectly, 

cerlainly. 
^tter (ei), a. of all kinds, vari- 

ous. 



Mevlkbft, a. mosl dear, most 
lovely. 

2ltfgefäl% ad. all pvetlily. 

^tttgegemvar^f. omnipresence. 

^Kgitttg, a. Und in the highest 
degree. 

WtwätjliQ, a. by degrees, grad- 
uell, 

5Ift£tt, ad. too, much too. 

WtfXmatjt, ad. all together. 

5(($, c. than, but, as, like, when. 

— baitlt, ad. then. 

5Hfo, ad. c. thus, so, therefore, 
consequently. 

3l(t, a. old, ancient, aged. 

3Utar, m. altar. 

2f(ter, n- age. 

3(e(ter(trf), a. parental. 

31c(tern, pl. parents. 

3(m,/or an bem. 

5tmt, n. ojßce, employmtnt. 
2(mt)nta^, a man's name. [to. 
3(n, pre. <m, at, near, in, by, of, 
anbieten, v. a. to offer, to bid. 
2(nMttfen, v. a. to look at. 

glance at. 
5tn6rerf)en, v. to begin, to break 

out or broach. 

3(nber, (ber,bte,ba£anbere), 

a. other, the second, different. 
21ltber3, ad. otherwise. 

2(netnanber, ad. together. 

5(nfat)ren, v. a. to reply rudely. 
anfallen, v. n. to fall lowards 



VOCABULARY. 



223 



a thing, to fall upon, to ap- 
proach suddenly. v. a. to as- 
sail, to altack. 
Anfang, m. beginning. 

anfangen, v. to begin. 

tylnfäxiQlid), a. original. 
SfnfangÖ, ad. in the beginning, 

atßrst. 
ShtfÜfyfett, v. a. tofeel. 
5fafltf)rett, v. a. to lead, to in- 

slruct, to deceive, to quote. 
tyWQCheV, Dl. informer. 

angehören, v. n. to beiong to. 

3(ttgjly f. anguish, anxiety. 
^(engjiten, v. n. to trouble, to 

alarm. 
Slettgftfirf}, a. anxious. 
^(it^eBen, v. to begin. [ärrive. 
Stltf ommctt, v. n. to come to, to 
Sttttttelbett, v. a. to give notice 

of, to announce. 
SHUtttlttf), f. pleasantness, grace. 
ig, a. agreeable, sweet, 

charming. 
2Irtttat)en / v. n. to approach. 
Sfaitefymen, v. a. to take, to re- 

ceive, to assume, to concede. 
^Uratfyeit, v. a. to advise. 
Sfoftfjielett, v. a. to squint at. 
^infe^en, v. a. to look at, to see, 

to consider, to remark. s. the 

act of looking at, authority, 

reputation. 
^Utfpntcf), m. claim, pretension. 



Slttffattb, m. Station, doubt, de- 
meanor. 

2lttffattb nehmen, to hesitatt, 

^injletfcnb, part. a. contagious. 

^Ittjloßett, v. a. to strike or push 
against. v. n. to hesitate in 
speaking, to offend, to attack. 

2fafltÖßig, »• offensive. 

^fatfyetf, m. skare, part. 

2int%n./ace. 

Antrag, m. offer, proposal. 

SlntraUClt, V. a. to marry. 

antreffen, v. a. to meet with, 
to concern. 

antreten, v. a. to tread, to en- 
ter upon. 

Antwerpen, Antwerp, a city. 

Antwort, f. answer. 

eit r v. a. to answer. 

2ltt$at)l, f. number. 

tyn^icbiCn, v. a. to draw,put on 
(dothes), to attract, to quote. 
v. r. to dress. v. n. to ad- 
vance, to approach. 

Apfelbaum, m. apple-tree. 

Apollo, m. Apollo. 

2lra6er, m. an Arabian. 

trabten, Arabia. 

Arbeit, f - i^or, work. 

Erbettelt, v. n. to labor, to icork. 
v. a. to work, to manufacture. 

Strm, a. poor. 

^rm, m. the arm. 

3lrntfc(tg, a. poor, miserable. 



224 



VOCABUI.ARY. 



5Irt r f. kind, mode. 

%\t, rn. bough. 

Sttfyemfo^, a. brealhless. 

3ÜtCr) r c. also, too, even. 

Sdlf, pre. upon, on, in, at, to, 

öfter, accordwg to. ad. up. 

i. up ! 

auffangen, v. a. to catch. 

^litfgefyett, v. n. to rise, to Mos- 

som, to be consumed. 
2luffya(teit, v. a. to hold up, to 

stop. v. r. to dwell upon, to 

stay. 
aufhören, v. u. to cease. 
3(uflaben, v. a. to lade. 
Sluflöfeit, v. a. to loose, to dis- 

solve, to explain. 
Sfafnefymett, v. a. to take up, 

to receiue. 
^Utfreigeit, v. a. to tear open, 

to tear up. 
2fofftf)rccfen, v. a. to frighten 

up, to rouse. 

Sluffefeert, v. a. to put up, to 

compose. 
5Iufftrf)t r f. care, superinten- 

dence. 
^faffpanneit, v. a. to extend, to 

spread. 
Slllftblttt, v. a. to open. 
5tuftt)erfcn, v. a. to awake, to 

call to life. 
Sfttf^Ug, m. the act of dvawing 

up, procession,parade. 



2Ütge r n. the eye. 

%llQQ\\blid, m. the motion of 

the eye, a moment. 
2Üt3 r pre. out of,from, of, ad. 

out. 
3ht$breitett, v. a. to spread. 
SUt^befyrtert, v. a. to extend. 
2(lt^brÜrf Hd), a. express. 

^u^einanberwerfett, v. to cast 

asunder. 
^it^errüäbten, v. a. to choose, 

to elect. 
3ht£<jattg, m. the act of going 

oul, departure, event, issne. 
ShtÖframcit, v. a. to display. 
SUtöfttttbcr, m. a foreigner. 
3fa$IÖfrf)Clt, v. a. to extinguish. 

v. n. to be extinguished. 

2fa$reuten, v. a. to root up, to 

extirpate. 
SCtt^rufeit, v. to cry out. 
2(tt#Htfyert) v. n. to rest. 
SfaÖfäctt, v. a. to scaiter setd, 

to SOU). 

SUttffagetl, v. a. to speak, to 

declare, to avow. 
2fo$ftf)ficftcn, v. a. to shut out, 

to exclude. 

2fa$fchrei6en, v. a. to publish. 

s. n. a proclamation. 
?Ut$fcbett, v. to see to the end, 

to choose, to look. 
3(Clt3fcr[t'cf) / a. external, out- 

ward. 



VOCABULARY. 



225 



2luf crorbentltcf), a. extraordi- 

nary. 
2Jtt3fpracfte, f. ullerance, pro- 

nunciation. 
^tt^fprecfyctt, v. a. to speak, to 

uiter, to pronounce. 
21u3fpntdv m. a senliment pro- 

nounced, sentence. 
^2Üi3tbeÜeit r v. a. to distribute. 
StyÖtTUtfejt, v. a. to empty {by 

drinking). 
9Üt3tt)aM, f. choice. *> 

3lU$gteben, v. a. to draw out, 

to extract, to extend. v. n. to 

remove from a place, to run 

away. 

B. 

ÜBcttf), m. a brook. 

SSäcfc^eit, n. dirnin. of bie 

Sßacfe, cÄeefr. 
S5aben r v. a. to bathe. 
SSafyttCtt, v. a. fo e/?en. 
S5alb r ad. soon, easily, almost. 
Sßctttb, 11. band, tie, bond. 
25attge, a. afraid. 
SBarbeit l)CUtt, m. a poetical or 

picturesque grove. 
SSßttett, v. a. to build, to culti- 

vate. 
kalter, m. peasant. 
93aUttt, m. a tree. 
SBecfyer, m. a cup, goblet. 
Üßetfeit, n. a basin. 



SBcbcdcit/ v. a. to covcr. 

25 ebenfett, v. to consider, to 

hesüate. 
SSebroheit, v. a. to threaten. 
SSebtttfett, v. a. to need. 
25ebÜrf»iß, n. want. 
SSeerbigitng, f. interment. 
25efallctt, v. a. to fall lipon, to 

befall. 
25efeM, m. command. 
SSefefttgett, v. a. tofortify. 

Sefittbett, v. tofmd. — 

25efriebtgittt<}, f. satisfadion, 

contenlment. 
^Begaffen, v. a. to gape at. 
23ege6cttbett, f. oecurrence. 
5ßecjCßttett r v. ii. to happen to, 

to oppose. 

SSegeben, v. a. to commit. 

23egel)rett r v. a. to desire. 
begierig, a. desirous. 
23egtttttett, v. to begin, to un- 

derlake. 
SSeglettett, v. a. to aecompany. 
SBegtetfett, v. a. to seize, tofeel, 

to comprehend. 
2ßel)Cliten, v. a to keep, to retain. 

25el)errfcfyer, m. ruler. 

Vßcii, n. a hatchet. 
S3eitt, n. leg, bone. 
35etj3ett, v. a. n. to Ute. 
SSefdmpfett, v. a. to combat, to 

subdue. 
25efattttt, a. known, familiär, 



226 



VOCABULARY. 



Befetyrttttg, f. conversion. 
SBeffdgcn, v. to lament, to pity. 
S5ef(agtC r iri. a defendant. 
SBefommcit, v. a. to obtain. v. 

n. to agree. 
33e(efottt(}, f. animation, life. 
$8eM)Ven, v. a. fo in/brm. 
S5efic6cn, v. a. to please, to 

choese. 
SScfobiten, v. a. fo reward. 
SSefo^ltlUtg, £ rewartf. 
SBchtftigcn, v. a. to amuse. 
SScmcrfcit, vi a. to perceive, to 

observe. 
23etttOOft, a. coveredivilh moss. 
23etttttf)tt, n. pains, trouble. 
S5cmÜl)Uitg, f. trouble,e?ideavor. 
SöeitefSeity. v. a. io moisten. 
23eraufd)Ctt, v. a. Jo intoxicate. 

berechtigen, v. a. *o authorize, 

tojustify. 
bereit, a. reac/j/. 
^Bereiten, v. a. fo prepare. 
^Bereiten, v. a. to repent, to re- 

gret. 
33erg/ni. a mountain, a hill. 

Vergalt, ad. up hill. 

S3ertd)t, m. report, notice, In- 
formation. 

SBericfyteit, v. a. to inform, to 
relate, to report. 

23 entfett, v. a. to call. 

23eriU)lttt, a. renowned. 

berühre«, v. a. to touch. 



SBefdjaff ettbeft, f. circumstance, 

State, condition. 
S5efrf)äfttgett, v. a. to employ. 
23efrf)ätttett, v. a. to shame. 
SBefcfyawett, v. a. to look at, to 

contemplate. 
23efrf)etbett, v. a. to assign, to 

appoint, to direct. 
SSefcfyetbeit, a. discreet, modest. 

fyett, f. discrelion, modesly. 

23cfrf)(teßett, v. a. to resolve, 

to determine. 

S3efd)rättfett, v. a. to Umit, to 

confine. 

58efrf)ret&tttt<3, f. description. 

SBefiegett, v. a. to vanquish, to 
conquer. 

S5ejT^, m. possession. 

er, m. possessor. 

S5efettber^, ad. separately, par- 
ticularly, especially. 

S3efprt^ett, v. a. to sprinkle. 

Keffer, a. ad. (comparaiive of 
gttt, good) better. 

23ej?e, (ber, bte, bCt£, Superla- 
tive of gltt, good) the best. 

23ej?erf)ttttg, £ bribery. 

35efteIIett, v. a. to appoint. 

23ejtttttlttett, v. a. to determine, 
to fix. 

S5eftrafett, v. a. to punish. 

SBeteit, v. n. to pray. 
S5etl)örett, v. a. to fool, to in- 
fatuate. 



VOCABULART. 



227 



Betrachten, v. a. to view, to 

consider. [tion. 

Betrachtung, f. view,considera- 
Betreffeit, v. a. to surprise, to 

befall, to concern. 
Betroffen, a.embarrassed,per- 

plexed. 
Betrübt, a. aßicted, sorrowful. 
Bett, n. a bed. 
Betteln, v. n. to beg. 
Betten, v. a. to make one's bed. 
Beutel, m. a bag, a purse. 
Bewegen, v. a. to move. 

Beweisen, v. a. to show, to 

prove. 
BeU)irtf)en, v. a. to entertain (a 
guest). 

Bewohnen, v. a. to inhabit. 

BettHtnbern, v. a. to admire. 

Bewunberngwürbig, a. admi- 

rable. 
Bewußt, a. conscious, known. 
Bei), pre. by, near, with, at, in, 

during. 
Bei)be, a. both, the two. 
BeiNtafye, ad. almost. 
Bei)fpte(, n. example. 
Bezeugen, v. a. to prove by wit- 

nesSy to attest. 

Bezwingen, v. a. to subdue. 
Bt6ef, f. bible. 

BteberftUn, m. an honest, up- 
right, generous disposition. 

Biegen, v. to bend. 



Biegung, f. bend, curve. 

Biene, f. a bee. 

Bieten, v. a. to bid, to offer. 

Bilb, n.form, Image, picture. 

Bilbniß, u.ßgure, image. 

Bittig, a.just, right, reasonable. 

— en, v. a. to approve, to con- 
sent to. 

Binben, v. a. to bind. 

Bi3, c. ad. HU, until, asfar as. 

Bifcf)Of, m. bishop. 

Btöfyer, ad. hüherto, tili now. 

Biß, m. a Ute. 

Bitte, f. entreaty, request. 

Bitten, v. a. to entreat, to re- 
quest. 

Bitter, a. bitter. 

6öfe, a. very wicked. 

BtciUf, a. white, shining. 

Bfatt, n. leaf. 

Bf alt, a. blue. 

Bldufirf), a. bluish. 

Bleiben, v. n. to remain, to stay. 

Bfeicfy, a. pale, wan,faint. 

Bfenben, v. a. to blind, to daz- 
zle. 

Blicf, m. gleam, glance. 

BüÖ, m. lightning, sudden 
splendor. [bellow. 

Blöfeu, v. n. to bleat, to low, to 

Bloß, a. naked, mere. 

BlÜben, v. n. to bloom. 

Blümchen, n. dimin. of bic 
Blume, flower. 



228 



VOCABULARY. 



23 htm C, f.ßoiver. 
SShtt, n. blood. 
bitten, v. n. to bleed. 
SBfatfabne, f. red flog or ban- 

ner. 
$8iÜfymUatt, n. petal. 
SSfatfylHlb, m. a bloodhound. 
Söhtttg, a. bloody. 
350(1, Di. bück, ram, he-goat. 
Robert, in. ground, soil. 
SBogCit, m. arch, bow, sheet 
230$, 23Öfe, a. &arf, evi7. 
23ü£l)aft, a. malicious, wicked. 
23oßt)eit, f. malicc, wickedness. 
33ra6ciUt, name of a duchy. 
SSranbaltar, m. aZ/ar o/7?re. 
SSratCU, m. a roas£. 
traten, v. a. to roast. 
Traufen, v. n. to sound, to roar. 

n. roaring, singing in the 

ears. 
23raut, f. bride. 
23rdnttgam r m. bridegroom. 
^Sred^en, v. r. to be broken, to 

break. 
ÜBrett, a. broad, large. 
Bretten, v. a. to spread, to ex~ 

tend. 

brennen, v. a. to bum. 

bringen, v. a. to bring. 
53rob, n. bread, a loa/. 
trüber, in. brother. 
^rüttelt, v. a. to roar, to bellow. 
SBnttf, f. breast. 



Prüften, v. r. to show pride, to 

beproud. 
SSÜtfert, v. r. to stoop, to bow. 
25it()ttC, f. stage, theatre. 
25ltnb brüchig, a. brealäng the 

covenanl, faithless. 
23nnt, a. variegated, colored. 
^Bürger, m. a Citizen. 
SBÜrgerftrf), a. relating to the 

citij or Citizens, civil. 
25Ürgertt>eft> f. civil affairs, 

literally civil world. 
23ufen, m. bosom, bay. 
S3itflfen r v. a. to repair, to com- 

pensate, to atonefor. 

C. 

@enfur r f. censorshipjudgment. 
Zeremonie, f. ceremony. 
@l)Cirafter, m. character, title. 
(Sfyrtft, m. a Christian. 
@l)riftenl)ett, f. christendom. 
(5f)rifHtd), a. Christian. 
(Sfemett$, Clement, a man's 

name. 
(Sonbotett^ f. condolencc. 

D. 

£a, ad. there, where, then, when. 
^Clbet), ad. near,thereby, there- 

in, besides. 
Qdtyev, ad. along, thence. c. 

therefore. 
^Clhtn, ad. there, thither,away. 



VOCABULARY. 



229 



dahinfliegen, y. to glide away. 
DafyÜlfeMt, v. a. to be gone, to 

be lost. 
Qamablö, ad. then.at that time. 
^amit, ad. therewith, ivith it, 

therefrom. c. that, in order 

that. 
Santttl, m. dam. 

Dämmerung, f. twüight. 

Damen, a man's name. 
Dam Olt, m. demon. 
kämpfen, v. a. to svffocate, to 

extinguish, to damp, to sup- 

press. 
Daitf, m. thanks, praise. 
kaufen, v. a. to thank. 
DaitU, ad. then. 
darauf, ad. thereapon. [offer. 

darbringen, v. a. to bring, to 

Darin, ad. therein. 

Darob, {contracted into Drob) 

on that aecount. 
darüber, ad. over that, lipon 

that, more. 

Damm, {contr. Drum) ad. 

about that, therefure. 
Dag, c. that. 
IXLttei, f.(ajruit) date. 
Dauer, f. duration, strength, 

conlinuance. 
Dauern, v. a. to äfftet or move 

wilh passion. 
DaüOU, ad. thereof, therefrom, 

off, away. 

20 



Da$U, ad. thereto, in addition 

to, besides. 
Detfe, f. cover, ceiling, veil. 
Derfen, v. a. to lay out. [tend. 
Dehnen, v. a. to Stretch, to ex- 

Dein, pr. thy, thine, 
Deinetwegen, on thy aecount. 

Delinquent, m. delinquent. 
Denfen, v. a. n. to think, to 

remember, to purpose. 
Denn, c.for, then, than. 
DeitUPcb, c. yet, nevertheless. 
Der, art. the. pr. that, ivho, 

which. 

Dergleichen, ad. such,such lifo. 

Dei'fctbe, pr. the same. 

Defpet, m. despot. 

DcfpOtifcb, a. despotick. 

DcftO,a conjunetion which aU 
vvays Stands before the com- 
parative degree, and notes 
Proportion, which, in En- 
glish, is expressed by the de- 
finite article the. It may of- 
ten be translated by so much 
the, as fcejtO beffer, so much 
the better. 

Deutfeh, a. German. 

Deittfcbe (Der), a German. 

DcittfcManb, n. Germany. 

Diamant, m. diamond. 

Dicht, a. dense, thick, solid. 

Dichten, v. to invent, to com- 
pose, to meditale. 



230 



VOCABULARY. 



Dtrfjter, m.poet. 

Dieb, m. thief. 

dienen, v. n. to serve, to belong. 

Dteujlbar, a. subjeet, obliging. 

Dtefer, Dtefe, Dtefe3,pr. this. 
Dmg, n. thing. ®uter Dinge 

fei)tt, fo 6e merry. 
Dorf), c. i/e£, nevertheless, in- 

deed. 
DüCtOr, m. efodor. 
Dominicaner, m. Dominican, 

black friar. 

Domimfanermöncfy, m. Do- 

minican friar or monÄ. 
£)Omtertt>etter, n. a «form, a 

tempest. 
Dontjtraurf), m. thorn-bush. 
Dort, ad. /Ziere, yonder. 
Dratttatifrf), a. dramatic. 

Drauf, see Darauf» 

DraU$ett, ad. wilhout, abroad. 

Drei), a. *Aree. 

Dreier, in. a piece of money 

equal to three small copper 

coins. 
£)rei)$ef)ttte, the thirteenth. 
Dritte, a. third. 
DrO^eiT, v. n. to threaten. 
DrÜcfeU, v. a. to press, to op- 

press. 
DrtjaÖ, f. Dryad. 
Dil, pr- thou. 
Dumm, a. dull, stupid. 
tyit, f. stupidity. 



Dttttfef, a. dark, obscure. 

blait, a. deep blue. 

Dünfett, v. n. to seem. 
Durtf), pre. ad. through, by. 

Durcfybtitfen, v. n. to look 

through, to gleam through. 
Durd)brecf)eu, v. a. n. to break 
through. 

Durchringen, v. n. to get 

through, to penetrate. 

Durcfygraben, v. a. to dig 

through or into. 
Durd)k6eU,v.a. to live through. 

Durdbfcrjauern, v. a. to thriil, 

to cause to shudder. 
Dürfen, v. n. to dare, to be al- 

lowed to do a thing. 
Dürre, f. aridity, drought. 
Durjt, m. thirst, strong desire. 
DÜjter, a. dark, gloomy. 
Qutynb, n. dozen. 

E. 

©bett, a. even, piain, level. ad. 

even, exactly. 
(£bely a.noble, exalted, gener ous. 
(Stuft, n. edict. 
(£t)e, (£1), ad. ere, before. (Sfyer, 

comp. deg. sooner, rather. 
(£f)e, & wedlock. 
(Sfyepaar, n . a married touplt. 
(£bemaf)ftg, a. old, former. 
(5t)rbar, a. honorable, respecl- 

able. 



VOCABULARY. 



231 



(Ebrfcegter, f. ambition, thirst 

for glory. 
(£bve, f. honor. 

(Ehrenamt, n. an qffice of honor. 
(Efyrenttoll, a. füll of honor, 

honorable. 

(Ehrerbietig, a. respectfui. 

(Einlieft, a. honest, honorable. 
(Ebrfud)t, f.inordinale ambüion. 
(Eicfye, f. oak. 
(£id)baum, m. oak-tree. 
(Etcf)tt>alb, m. oak-forest. 
(Hb, m. oalh. 

(Eigen, a. own, proper, peculiar. 
(Eigenliebe, f. selflove, selfish- 

ness. 
(Eigentbum, n. property. 
(Eigentümer, m. proprietor, 

proprietary. 
(Eigentlich), a. proper, own, pe- 

culiar. 
(Ein, (Eine, (EÜt, art. a, an, nu- 

meral one. 
(EÜtCMber, a. one another. 
(Einbmcf, m. Impression. 
(EÜtbritcf ett, v. a. fo press in, to 

impress. 
(Hinfallen, v. n. tofall in, to in- 

vade, to occur. 
(Einfältig, a. simple, silly. 
(Einfluß, m. imflux, inßuence. 
(Einförmig, a. uniform. 
(EÜtgebilbet, a. imaginary, con- 

ceited. 



(Eingebenf, a. mindful. 

(Einfyeimifrf), a. native, home- 
made, home-bred, domestic. 

(Einiger, pr. so me, any. 

(Einkaufen, v. a. to buy in, to 
purchase. 

(Eintajfen, v. r. to have to do 
with, to engage in. 

(Einmabl, ad. once. Jlid)t cm 
mabl, not even. 9tod) ein* 

mabl, once more. 
(Einöbreit, v. to thread. 

(Einpflanzen, v. a. to plant, to 

implant. 
(Ettt$, f. the number one. a. one. 

ad. of one mind. 
(Einfant, a. single, solitary. 

feit, f. solilude. 

(Eittfcfyenfett, v. a. to pourin. 
(Einfcfytafen, v. D. tofall asleep. 
(Einfe§en, v. a. to appoint. 
(Ein$maf)l3, ad. once, at some 

future time. 
(Eittjt, ad. once, at one time. 

(Einwerfen, v. a. to put in, to 

shut up. 
(Einjtimmen, v. n. tofall in, to 

agree. 
(Eingeben, v. a. to conßscate. 
(Einzig, a. ahne, exclusive, sin- 

gle. 
(Et$, n. ice. 
(Eifen, n. iron. 
Eifern, a. iron. 



VOCABULARY. 



(Efefa, v. n. to loathe. 

(Efeltb, n. misery. a. miserable 

wretch. 
Grftrir, n. elixir. 
(Efte, f. (a measure) yard, eil. 
Empfangen, v. a. to receive, to 

take. [ity. 

(Empfcmgficfyf ett, f. susceptibü- 

(Emp ftnbxtng r f- Sensation, per- 

ception, feeling. 
(Etttffg, a. adwe, 6wsr/. 
(Enbe, n. enrf. 

(EttbtCjen, v. a. to end, toßnish. 
(EnWttf), a.ßnite,ßnal. 
(Ettgef, m. angeZ. 
(Entblöffen, v. a. to uncover, to 

strip. 
(Entbrennen, v. n. to he inflam- 

ed, to kindle. 
(Entehren, v. a. to dishonor. 
Entfallen, v. n. to fall ßrom, 

to escape. 
(Entfärben, v. r. to change color. 

(Entfernung, f. removal, dis~ 

tance. 
(Entgegen, pre. against, to- 

wards, opposite. 
(Entgehen, v. n. to escape. 
(Enthalten, v. a. to contain. v. 

r. to remain, to refrain, to for- 

bear. 
(Elttftetben, v. a. to undress. 
(Eittfräfteit, v. a. to weaken. 
^nttanfen, v. n. to run away. 



(Entreiflen, v. a. to tear away, 
to snatch away. v. n. to run 
atvay. 

(Enffctgcrt, v. n. to renounce. 

(Entfrf)[ei)Cm, v. a. to unveil. 

(Entfctyummern, v. n. to fall 

into a slumber. 
(Entfcf)tt)tnben, v. n. to vanish. 
(Enfetsltrf), a. shocking, terrible. 
(Enfteben, v. n. to begin, to 

arise. 
(Enftel)ttng, f. origin, rüe. 
(EntÖÖff em, v. a. to depopulate. 
(Entweichen, v. n. to disappear, 

to escape. 
(EntttHfcfyen, v. n. to escape. 
(EntttWrf, m. sketch, design, 

plan. 

(Entwurzeln, v. a. to root vp. 

(Entheben, v. a. to withdrato. 
(Ent^Ücfen, v. a. to enrapture, 

to ravish. 
(Ent^Ünben, v. a. to kindle, to 

set on fire. v. r. to catch fire. 
(Er, pr. he. 

(Erbarmen, v. to pity. 

(Erbe, ni. heir. 

Urbild en, v. a. to pereeive. 

(£rbhaU,m.the terrestrial globe. 

(Erbe, f. earth. 

(ErbrÖf)nen, v. to make a dron- 

ing sound. 
(ErbrÜtf en, v. a. to crush, to kill 

by pressure, 



VOCABÜLARY. 



233 



greifen, V. a. to övertake. 
(Erfahren, v. a. to perceive, to 

harn, to suffer. 
(Erfechten, v. a. to obtain by 

fighting. 
(Erjtnben, v. a. to find, to find 

out, to invent. 
(Erflehen, v - a - to obtain by en- 
treaty. 

Erfragen, v. a. to find out by 

asking. 
(Erfriftfjen, v. a. to cool, to re- 

fresh. 
(Erfüllen, v. a. tofill, tofulfil. 
(Ergeben, v. n. to be inade. 

known, to happen. 
(Ergreifen, v. a. to seize, to com- 

prehend. 
(Erhaben, a. elevated, sublime. 
(Erbatten, v. a. to maintain. 
Erheben, v. a. to raise, to notice. 

v. r. to be elevated, to rise. 
(Erinnern, v. r. to remember, to 

recollect. 
(Erütnemng, f. admonition, re- 

colleclion. 
(ErtöaiT, name of a city. 
(Erfemten, v. a. to perceive, to 

distinguish,to prove,to deeide. 

(Erftcren or erf ören, v. ref. to 

select, to invent. 
(Er! (Ören, v. a. to explain, to 

declare. [lain. 

(Erfangen, v. a. to reach, to at- 
20* 



(Ertanfcett, v. a. to permit. 
(Er(end)ten, v. a. to illuminate. 
(Erfeud)tUng, f. Illumination. 
(Erliegen, v. n. to sink (under 

pressure). 
(Erföfitng, f. redemption. 
(Ermorben, v. a. to murder. 
(Ermuntern, v. a. to encourage. 

(Ernähren, v. a. to nourish, to 

support. 
(Erneuern, v. a. to renew. 
(Emft, m. earnestness, serious- 

ness. a. serious, strict. 
(Ernte, f. harvest. 
(Eroberer, m. conqueror. 

(Eroberung, f- conquest. 

(Erqiticfen, v. a. to recreate, to 

refresh. 
(Erretten, v. a. to save, to pre- 

serve. 
(Errichten, v. a. to erect, to es- 

tablish. 
(Erfd)affen, v. a. to create. 
(Erfrfieinen, v. n. to appear. 

d rfü)(agen, v. a. to slay. 

(Erfchrecf en, v. a. to terrify. 
(Erftmten, v. a. to imagine, to 

contrive. 
(Erft, art.first, atfirst, only now. 
(Erftaitnen, v. n. to be aston- 

ished. 

(Erjte, (ber, bte, ba$~), a.first. 

(Er|tet)en, v. n. to rise. v. a. to 
buy at an auetion. 



234 



VOCAEULARY, 



(£rträttfen, v. a. to drown. 
(£xwad)en, v. n. to awake. 
©MOäbfcn, v. a. to choose. 

Ermatten, v. a. to expect. 

(£m>a rtltltg, f. expedation. 
(Srwetfett, v. a. to awaken, to 

animate. 
(£rttnebern, v. a. to return, to 

reply. 
(Spähten, v. a. to relate, to teil. 
(Sqäbltmg, f. narration. 
(5rgamt r a very high oßce. 
(Sqtttew, v. u. to tremble. 
(£r$Ürnen, v. a. to irritate, to 

provoke. 
(£$, pr. it. 
Q?fel, m. ass. 
(Sffeit, v. a. n. to tat. 
G*tWCl, ad. perhaps, about. 
(StttVClß, pr. something, any- 

thing, some. 
(Sltrf), pr. J/ou. 
CntCt, pr.your, yours, ofyou. 

Grulenfpicgel, m. a /boZ, few/*- 

/oon, 

(Europa, Europe. 

(^Utopäcr, m. European. 

(Stoattgettum, n.gospel. 

QfXüXQ, a. eternal, perpetual. ad. 
(§ty ! i. aÄ/ fca/ weZZ/ 



gabelwelt, f. uw-Zd o/>6Ze. 



gaben, m. thread. 
gäl)tg, a. capable, alle. 
gabne, f-flag, Standard, vane. 
gall, m.fall, event, case. 
gatteit, v. n. to fall, to die, to 

he. 
gälten, v. a. tofeüj to tut down. 
galfrf), a.false. 
gamtlte, f.famüy. 
gang, m. a draught, a haul, 

a catch. 

garbe, f. color. 

garben, v. a. to color, to dye. 
gaffen, v. a. to seize, to hold, 

to comprehend. 
gaft, ad. atmost, about, very. 
gaitf, a. lazy. 
geber, f.feather. 
gef)(eit, v. n. to err, to miss, io 

tvant, to fail. 

gehler, m. fault. 

getge, a. soß, cowardly. 

geige, f.fig, a Uow. 
geilen, v. a. tofile. 

geilt, a.fine, elegant. 
getttb, m. enemy,ßend. 
geütbe^blut, n. hoslile blood. 
gctnbllrf), a. hostile. 
gelb, n.ßeld. 
gefö, ib. rock. 

gel3ettfrf)lucl)t, f. rocky pass. 
genfer, n. windoio. 
germent, n. ferment. 
gern, a./ar, distant. 



VOCABULARY. 



gerne, f. distance. 
gefleht, v. a.to fetter. 
geft, a. fast, firm, solid. 
ge|t, n.feast,festival. 
gett, a. fat, greasy. 
gener, n.fire. 
generfkmme, f.fire-fiame. 

geuerftröme, m.fiery stream. 
gettrig, ü-ficry, ardent. 
ge^erttrf), a. solemn. 
geperlt, v. to solemnize, to cele- 

brate. 
gteber, n. fever. 
gütbett, v. a. tofind, to consider. 
gtngerfyttt, m. thimble. 
gütfter, a. dark, gloomy. 
gtfrf), m.fish. 
gttttd), m. wing, pinion. 
glammc, f. flame. 
gfefyen, v. a. to implore. 
g(etfrf), n.fiesh. 
gttege, f.fiy. 
gttcgcn, v. n. tofly. 
gftefyen, v. n. tofiee. 
gfob, m. fiee. 
gtöte, f. flute. 
gfacfyen, v. a. to curse. 
ghtrfjeit, n. cursing. 
gfad)t, f.fiight. 
g(itd)ttg, a.fiying, fugitive. 
gtltgtgfett, (.fiuidity, liquidity. 
gtntf), f.>oc/. 
gol$e, f. consequence. 
golge^ett, f. future Urne. 



gotgen, v. n. toßlloio. 

gofterpeüt, f. the punishment 

of the rack. 
goftemng, f. tortures. 
gorbem, v. a. to demand. 
gorm, f.form,figure. 
gorfd)en, v. n. to search, to in- 

quire. 
gort, ad. forth, away. 

gortarbeiten, v. n. to continue 

to work. 
gertbanern, v. n. to continue. 
gortfabren, v. n. to depart, to 

continue. 
gortgefyen, v.n.to go away, to 

proeeed. 
gortretßett, v. a. to tear away, 

to siveep away. 
gortfcfyteppen, v. a. to drag 

along. 
gra^e, f. question. 

graben, v. a. to ask. 

grattfretd), D. France. 

gran^fanermönrf), m.Fran- 

ciscanfriar or monk. 
grattpjTfrf), a. French. 
grct£, m. a jester, a droit, a 

fellow. 
gran, f. woman, wife, mistress. 
gretttb, a. stränge, foreign. 
grembe, m. stranger. 
grembttng, m. stranger, for- 

eigner. 
greffett, v. a. to cat, to devour. 



236 



VOCABULARY. 



freute, f. joy. 
grenbetbräne, f. tear o/joy. 

greitbig, a. joyful, joyous. 
grenen, v. r. to rejoice, to be 

glad. 
grettnb, m.friend. 
grennb(td), a. kind, pleasing. 
grei), a./ree. 

-—geben, v. to release,to setfree. 
— gebig, a. liberal, generous. 
— geijt, m. free-thinker. 
— fyett, f. freedom, liberty. 
— ftrf), adv. certainly, indeed. 
— jtWtbe, f. leisure hour, play 

hour. 

griebe and grieben, m. peact. 

grieblirf), a. peaceable,peaceful. 

gricbricf), Frederic. 

grifd), a. and ad. fresh, new, 

cool. 
gri$, Fritz, familiär abbrevia- 

tion of Frederic. 
grob, a. joyful. 
gröblieb, a. joyous, gay. 
grol)(ccfeit, v. n. to rejoiee, to 

exult. 
grOtttttt, a. innocent, good, gen- 

tle, pious. 
gritrf)t, f. fruit. 
grttd)tfog, a.fruitless. 
grub, a. ad. early. 
grÜf)jtUCf, n. breakfast. 
gnd)S, m.fox. 
glig, m.reason, justice. 



gitgett, v. r. to suit, to be suit- 

able, to happen. 
güt)(en, v. a. tofeel. 
güfyrett, v. a. to carry, to lead, 

to manage, to use. 
gälten, v. a.toßll. 
gltnf, n.ßve. 

— te, a.ßfth. 

— $ebnte, a.ßßeenth. 
gltnfe, m. spark, sparkle. 
gitr, pre. for. 
gltrrf)t, f. fear. 
gurd)tbar, a. formidable. 
gürrf)ten, v. a. tofear. 
gürd)ter(id), a. terrible. 
gürft, m. aprince, a sovereign. 
gil£, m.foot. 

güßlein, n. dimin. of ber gup, 

foot. 

G. 

®ahc, f. giß. 

G5aitg, m. going, walk, course. 

vogue, passage. 
©ange^, name of a river. 

($an$, f. goose. 

©an^, a. ivhole. ad. quite, en- 

tirely. 
@ar, ad. quite, entirely. 

(Sjarbe, f. sheaf. 

©arftig, a. dirly, nasty, vgly. 

©drteben, n. dimin. of ber 

(garten, garden. 
©arten, m. garden. 



VOCABULARY. 



237 



(Partner, m. gardener. 
(55a jl r m. guest. 
©attittig, f. kind, species. 
(&ail, m. or n. country, district. 
©aitrf), m, gawk, silly fellow. 
©aufetfptef, n. legerdemain, 

juggle. 
tyaili, in. horse, nag, jade. 
©ebäten, v. a. to bring forth. 
©ebctlt, n. f/ic bones ofthe body. 
($e6en, v. a. io give, to rtnder. 

(£$ Qtcbt, Mere ts, <^ere are. 
©e6et r w.prayer. 
(bebtet, n. command, dominion, 

district. 
©eblCtClt / v. a. tfo command. 
©eSoren, a. and part. oom. 

©ebaitfe, m. thought. 

(Stebettfert, v. a. *o think, to 

mention, to remember. 
(Skfafyr, f. langer. 
(trf), a. dangerous. 

(Stefattgenfcfyaft, f. captivity. 

(^efccfyt, n.flght, contest. 
©efttbe, xx.fields, piain. 
©cfüfyf, n.feeling. 
reid),a./u// ofwarm-heart- 

edfeeling, sensitive. 
(Regelt, pre. toivards, against, 

in comparison with. 
©cgeitb, f. region, country. 
(Gegenwart, f. presence. 

©egenn?ärttg / a. present 

(Geheim, a. secref. 



©e^etmtttf, n. secret, mystery. 
©efyen, v. a. to go, to be. 
(^efyint, n. 6mm. 
©eueren, v. n. to belong, to be 

required. 
©efyülfe, m. assistant. 
Qbcift, tri. spirit, mind, genius. 
($C\ftiQ f a. spiritual, intellec- 

tual, witty. 
©Ctlltirf), a. spritual, ecclesias- 

tical, clerical. 
©eijHkfyf tit, f. spirituality, tfie 

clergy. 
Öetffretcfv a - rich ™ spirit, 

spirited, witty. 
©et$ r m. avarice. 
(Mangelt, v. n. to reach, to 

attain to. 
$efb r a. yelloiv. 
(^elb, m. coin, money. 

facf, m. money -bag. 

(Megen freit, f. Situation, cir- 

cumstance, opportunily. 
C^efcfytt, a. informed, learned. 

£>er ($e(el)rte, a Zeamed 

man, scJwlar. 
©ettebte, m. f. Jower, mistress. 
©ettttgeit, v. n. fo succeed, to 

prosper. 
©e(t, i. in truth, it is so. 
©ettett, v. n. to be current, to 

be worth, to avail, to relate to. 
(MÜ&be, n. vow. 
®emad), a. soß,gentle,gradML 



288 



VOCABÜLARY. 



©emdcfyftd), a. soß, slow, easy. 
($emäf)lbe, n. picture. 
©enteilt, a. common, vulgär, 

public. 
©entittf), n. mind, disposition. 

©enefymtgnng, f. approval, rat- 

ißcation. 
©ettefett, v. n. to recover. 
©ettte, n.genius. 
©etttegbar, a. capable ofbeing 

cnjoyed, eatable. 
©etttegen, v. a. to enjoy. 
©etUUg, ö. genius. 
©ettltg/ a. ad. cnough, svfficient. 
©erClbe, n. straight, directly, 

cxactly. 
©erätfy, n. implement, Utensil, 

furniture. 
©eratfyetV v. n. to fall upon, 

to turn out, to succeed. 
©erättttttg, a. spacious, large, 

wide. 
©erdltfd^ n. nolse, bustle, roar- 

ing. 
©erecfyt, tx.just, righteous,fair. 

©erecfytigfett, f. justice. 

©ericfyt, n. judgment, Jurisdic- 
tion, justice, tribunal. 
Gbmd)t$baxh\t, {.Jurisdiction. 

©ertcfytöpflege, f. judidai pro- 

cedure. 
©ermattifd), a. German. 
©ent, ad. willingly, readily, 

commonly, purposely. 



©erurf), m. smell, odour. 
©efattg, m. act of singing, 

song, hymn. 
©efcfyäft, n. business. 
©efrfjäfrtg, a. busy, active. 
©efcbeben, v. n. to kappen, to 

be done, to be made. 
©efcbeitf, n. giß, present. 
©efrf)trf)te, f. history, story, 

tale. 
©efcfyttf, n.ßtness, ability,fate. 

©efd)tcft, a.ßt. 

©efrfjtecfyt, n. fcmd, racc, «ex. 

©efcfyijpf, n. creature. 

($efd)0$, n. rfarJ, arrow, bolt. 

©efeKett, v. to associate, tojoin. 

©efetttg, a. social. 

©efetttgfett, f. soäableness. 

©efellfrfjaft, f. Society, Com- 
pany. 

$efe£, n. law. 

©eficfyt, n. sig-M. 

($e|fa(t r f.ßgure, appearance. 

©ejle^ett, v. a. to confess, to 
own. 

©ejMtttfv n. bushes, copse. 

©efttrtb, a. sound, healthy, 
wholesome. 

©etreit, n.faithful, true. 

©etrojly a. conßdent. 

©eti'tmmef, n. bustle, noise. 

©eöatter, m. god-father. 

©eöatterSmann, m. g<mi>. 
©ett>at)r werben, v.fo pereeive. 



VOCABULARY. 



239 



©ett)dbrett, v. a. to promise, to 

loarrant, to grant. 
©ett>Cl(t, f.power,force. 
tg r a. powerful, violent, 

very great. 
fällt, ü'forcible, violent. 



©ett>CUtb, n. cloth, stuff, gar- 
ment. 

©etDerbe, n. business, commis- 
sion. 

©ettHtttt, m. gain, profit. 

flicht, f. avarice. 

©ett)t$, a. certain, sure. 

©CWtfiett, n. conscience. 

bflft, a - conscientious. 

©ett)Obrteit, v. n. to get accus- 
tomed to. 

©ett>Öbn(tcb, a. customary, 
usual. 

©ett)Ölbe, n. vault, arch. 

©td)t, f- gout, palsy. 

©tft, n. poison. 

©tfttg, a. poisonous, angry. 

©tgcttttlfd), R. gigantic. 

©(ält^en, v. n. fo s/iine, Jo glit- 
ter, to gleam. 

©taube, m.faith, belief, credit, 
religion. 

©kuben^rettotutiott, f. reli- 

gious revolution. 

©fauben6t>erorbmmg, f. reli- 

gious ordinance. 
©(etd), a. even, direct, equal, 
like. ad. equally, just, exact- 



ly, directly, presently, just 

now. 
©(etrfjett, v. n. to equal, to bt 

like, to resemble. 
©fetcbfatfe!, ad. likewise, also. 
©(etcfyoMtUjfett, f. indifer- 

ence. 
©(etcbttobt, e. nevertheless. 
©ttttipfltd), a. indulgent, mild, 

gentle. 
©(otfe, f. bell, dock. 
(55titcf r n. success,fortune, hap- 

piness. 
©Ütcfttrf), a. succcssful,lucky, 

fortunale, happy. 
©(Üben, v.n.to gloiv. 
©ltabc, f. benevolence, favor, 

grace, mercy. 

brtef, n. letters patent. 

©OCt, name of a city. 

©olb, n. g-oW. 

©otbett, a. g-oW, golden. 

©Ott, Gorf. 

©Otteöbteitft, m. cfonne ser- 

vice, public worship. 
©Ottbett, f. deily, godhead, di- 

vinity. 
©Öttltrf), a. divine, godly. 
©Öf3e, m. idol. 
©rab, n. grave, tomb. 
©reiben, v. a. to grave, to carve, 

to impress, to dig. 
©ram, m. grief, dislike. 
©rattaba,a province ofSpain. 



240 



VOCABULARY. 



(Sfrärt^e, f. limit, boundary. 
Qbxa.$ f n. grass. 
(3tan\am f a. shocking, cruel. 
(greifen, v. a. to setze. 

©reiö, a. gray. Der f 

a man gray tvith age. 
©retf, a. very light, dazzling, 
shrill. 

©ren^e, f. see (5Jrcui$c. 

©rob, a. large, coarse. 
©reg, a. great. 

mqirifttor, m. chief In- 
quisitor. 
mittl)lg r a. magnanimous, 



gener ous. 

IttUttcr, f. grand-mother. 

Q^Tttbc, f. hole, pit, mine, grave. 
@rütt, a. green. Da3 — , ver- 

dure. 
©ntttb, m. ground, bollom, 

foundation, reason. 

©riinben, v. a. to fathom, to 

ground, tofound. 

(^runbfäitle, f. a piliar. 

$rtmbjftt<f, n.re.alestate. 
@VU$ r ni. salute, greeting. 
grüßen, v. a. togreet, to salute. 
©ttltff, f.favor, leave. 
©Ut r a. g-oorf. £5(1$ — , « 6te- 

ing, pos Session, estate, coun- 

try-seat. 
©ÜtCt, pl. estates, goods. 
®VLt tljiltt, v. fo cfo g<W. adv. 

well. 



©Jtt^erjtg, a. good-hearted, 

good-natured. 
©Ütt<J, a. gootf, Äinrf. 

H. 

^afctt, v. n. fo /taue. 

jSabfltrf)^ f. aivm'ce. 

jpacfctt, v. a. to hack, to chop, 
to peck. 

$)Cl\Xl, m. ivood, grove. 

S?atb, a. half. 

$)älfte, f. one half. 

S)Cll$, m. neck. 

A^ClttClt, v. to hold, to keep, to 
detain, to inßuence, to think, 
to adhere to. 

^amfoirq, name of a city. 

^Cltttet, a inan's name. 

S^ämment, v. a. to hammer. 

ftdltb, f. hand. 

S>anbel\iabt, f. commercial 
town. 

^anbhtltg, f. trade, action. 

jpaitbfdjfag, m.abloworstroke 
with the hand, the qffering of 
the hand as apledge ofan Ob- 
ligation or promise. 

5}Cmbtt)erfVr). handiwork,hand- 
icraft, profession. 

S^Cl\XQ f n. declivity, inclination, 
propensily. 

jpattgen, $2Utgeo> v. n. to 

hang, to adhere. 
&arm, m. grief 



VOCABULAHY. 



241 



QdXtf a. hard, harsh, severe, ad. 

very. 
§artnäcüg r a. stißiecked, stub- 

bqrn. 
^Clffcit, v. a. to hate. . 
fcaild), in. breath, breeze^aspi- 

ratioti. 
JVaitcfyeit, v. n. to breathe for- 

cibly, to bloiv. 
JpCtUeit, v. a. to hew, to cut, to 

strike. 
j^aitfe, m « heap, pile, multitude. 
&au$t, n. head. 
Jftait^, ö. house. 
§au^frait r f. mistress ofafam- 

ily, housewife. ■ 
$)äu$U#) f a. domestic, frugal, 

thrißy. . 
$)aü$t>CLtev, m. father of the 

famüy. 
S^CUlt, f. hide, skin. 
£e ! i. heh ! ha ! ho ! 
§e6eit, v. a. to raise, to take up, 

to remove, to elevate. 
Soften, v. a. to fasten, toßx. 
Regelt, v. a. to fosterj to cherish. 
freit, i. hall 

feilen, v. a. to heal, to relieve. 
JÖetlfg, a. sacred, höly. 
— — fett, f. holiness, sanetity. 
frct(fttn|T, f. medical ärt, sur- 

gery. [try. 

S)e\rtlCltb, f. home, native coun* 
^etmüdf), a. secret, private. 



^eittrtrf), Henry." • 
Qcirathen, v. a. to marry. 
fretratb^OUt, n.portion, dower. 
fre'tß, a. hot, ardent. 
fretgett, v. to name, to call, to 

command. v. n. to be called, 

to be said, to mean. 
ftefdtomb, f. Kecatomb. 
fre(b, m. hero. 
Reifen, v. a. to help, to save, 

to avail. 
frcft, a. clear, bright, whole. 
frettlt, m. helve,helm. 
frer, ad. hither. 
S^QXClbbiCQCW^ v. to bend doiun, 

to low er. 

fallen, v. n. to fall down. 

fomnten, v. to descend. 

fcfyteßen, v. to rush 

down. 

ptürjeit, v. a. to preeip- 

itate downwards. 
§erart r ad. hither. 
£erau3ftef)len, v.to steal away, 

to remove by steallh. 
Qethe, a. sour. 
$>exhc\), ad. hither, near. 
fyerrfcfyen, v. to command 

hither. 
frtCdheit, v. to creep up 

(to any thing). [place. 
— -^ — rufen, v. a. to call to a 
frf)(etd)en, v. to creep upi 



to steal up (to any thing). 



21 



242 



VOCABULARY. 



^erbringen, v. a. to bring 

hither. 
§erbe r f. herd, drove, flock. 
Verfliegen, v. n. to flow hither. 
^erfommert, v.n. to come mar, 

to approach. 
$)exfüte$, a man's name. 
^erlaufen, v. to run along. 
^ermantt, a man's name. 
§ent ad), ad. after, aßerwards. 

^ernieber, ad. down. 

^erceufraft, f. heroie might. 

S^CXX f m. master, lord, Sir. 

$)CXXlid), a. magnificent, splen- 
did, excellent. 

^errfdjeit, v. n. to rule,to reign, 
to govern, to prevail. 

^ertragen, v. to bring, to car- 
ry along. 

Verübet, ad. over, across. 

Uetgett, v. r. to incline 

over this way. 

5jewnt, ad. round about. 

fliegen, v. tofly about. 

fcfyroimmen, v. to swim 

about. 

herunter, ad. down. 

fe$en r v. to lower, to re- 

duce. 

£er*>orfprubeln, v. to gush 

forth. 
$)ex%, n. heart, breast, mind, 
courage. [cordial. 

lief), a. inward, hearty, 



§e£e, f. hunt, chase, course. 

beulen, v. n. to howl. 

feilte, ad. to-day, this day. 
Riebet, ad. hither. 
$)iex, ad. here. 
§ierard)ie r f. hierarchie. 
jpimmel, m. heaven, sky. 
£immetelieblid)feit, f- celes- 

tial loveliness. 
£immeteffrid), m. climate. 
^tmmltfd), a. celestial, hea- 

venly. 
$)in, ad. thither. 
föÜtCtb, ad. down. 

ftinabfallen, v. tofall. 
hinauf, ad. up, up to. 
hinauftreiben, v. to drive up, 

toforce up. 
£mau$, ad. out. 
j^mauöquettett, v.to gush/orth. 
£inau3fd)cmen, v. to look 

forth. 

$incw3feuf$en, v. to sighßrth. 

Einbauen, v. to build along. 

Einbringen, v. a. to bring or 

carry to a place, to pass, to 

spend (time). 
Einbujfon, Hindosian. 
jjinein, ad. in, into. 
fliegen, v. tofiow in. 

paefen, v. to pack in. 

treten, v. to enter. 

Eingeben, v. n. to go, topass. 

^)inlänglirf), a. sußeient. 



VOCABULARY. 



243 



ftütnebmen, v. a. to take. 
Ätnraufrf)en, v. n. to murmur 

along. 
fttttricfytimg, f. execution. 
,£mtfrf)(Üpfen, v. n. to slide a- 

long, to glide. 
ftÜtter, pre. behind, aßer. 
Ictffett/. v. a. to leave behind, 

to bequeath. 

Eintreten, v. to step to, to ap- 

proach, to advance. 
% hinüber, ad. over, across. 

fet)tiett, v. r. to have a 

longing over that way. 

hinunter, ad. down. 

£ttttt)eg, ad. away. 

tt)enbett, v. to turn away. 

Einwerfen, v. a. to throw down 

or away. 
jpüt^lt, ad. to, towards. 

fügen, v. a. to add. 

^Hfttto^, *• brainless, silly. 
§trfd) r m. stag, deer. 
§trt, m. herdsman, shepherd. 

£od), [£ober, bebe, bofyeg ; 

comparativedegree,£öber } 

Superlative, ber $)öd)ftt] a. 

high, sublime, distinguished. 
^orf)gc(ehtt r a. very learned. 
$>od)XtlVlt\), m. haughtiness, 

pride. 
föof, m. yard, court-yard, court. 
jjoffett, v. n. to hope. 
^effttitttg, *• hope, erpeetation. 



^offmmgSfrraljI, m. ray f 

hope. [hopeful. 

^offhltttcjäöoff, a.ßill ofhope, 
^Öbe, f. height. 
ftofyett, f. highness. 
£obly a. hollow. 
§Öf)fe r f.'a hollow, cave. 
S^0i)XX f m. scorn, contumely. 
$)o[b f a. kind, attached, pleas- 

ing. 
§0(bÜtn, f.ßmaleßiend. 
jpoföfcltg, a. kind, agreeable, 

beloved. 
$)t>Utl, t. a. to bring near, to 

ßtch. 
ftölfe, f. hell. 

^offltettt, narae of a duehy. 
jpOUtg, n. m. honey. 
jjorcfjett, v. n. to hearken, to 

listen. 
ftömt, v. a. to hear. 
Sporn, n. hörn. 
&0Tt, rn. a treasure, jewel. 

i^nfyncfyen, n. dimin. of ba£ 
S>nl)n f aßwl. 

§nfbtgung, f. homage. 
foulbretd), a. gracious, benevo- 

lent. 
ftittfe, f. help, advice. 
foittfc, f. cover, veil. 
füllen, v. a. to wrap up, to 

cover. 
ftltnb, m. dog, hound. 
§Unbett r a. hundred. 



244 



VOCABULARY. 



ipttttbertmafyl, ad. a hundred 
times. 

^unberttaufenb, indec. m a 

hundred thousand. 
^Itttger, m. hunger. 
ftUttßftg, a. hungry. 
foÜtCtt, v. to look after, to watch, 

to keep. 
jpütte, f. shed, hut, cottage. 
§i)(ar, name of a dog. 

I. 

3f)t/ pr. you, to he?', her, their, 

your. 
%hn$<)ieid)en, s. pl. her equals. 
^tltmer, ad. always, ever. 
3tt r pre. in, into. 
^ttbCltt, c. ivhüe, as, since. 

Sflbeß, ^ttbeßen, c. in the 

mean Urne, white, however. 
^ttbten, India. 
^ItttetC, a. inner, interior, 
3ntterc$ r n. inmost soul. 
^ttlterjr, a. inmost. 
3ttne Werben , v.n.to perceive, 

to be made conscious. 
3ttlttg, a. hearty, cordial. 

(trf), ad. heartily. 

^ttttOCentÜt^ name of a man. 
3nqUtjTtt0n, f. Inquisition. 

Snqutfitienögertcfyr, n. the in- 

quisitoriat tribunal. 
Jttjtmcr, m. instinct. 



SnftitUt, n. institution. 
^rbtfrf), a. earthly, mortal. 
3tgenb r ad. somewhere. 
' . eilt, a. any. [where. 

tOC f ad. somewhere, any 

3tTe, a. ad. asträy, confused. 
3rrtbimt/ m. error, mistake. 
3fegnmm r m. a name for the 

wolf. 
3fpaban, name of a city. 

Stalten, itaiy. 

J. 

3ct r ad. yes, indeed, surely. 

^Ctgen, v. to drive, to chase, to 
hunt, to run. 

3ciger r m. hunter, huntsman. 

^Clfyr, n. year. 

— — Mmberr, n. Century. 

^Äbjcrn, m. sudjden anger, vi- 
olent passion. 

Sdlttllter, -m. lamentation,mis- 
ery. 

^ämmerttrf), a. mise.rable, la- 
mentable. 

jammern, v. fo lament, to wail. 

3e, euer, always. %e ttUtt, i. 
. u><?w now>/ 3e Stt>ei) utt b 
£tt)Ci), £u>o «rad *wo. 

3eber, 3ebe, 3ebe$, pr. ever?/ } 

euer?/ one. 
Sebermamt, pr. erer?/ one. 



VOCABULARY. 



245 



^ebödf)/ c. yet, nevertheless. 
SfcQficfyer, pr. every, each. 
3emattb, pr. somebody, any 
body. 

Setter, %ene, 3ctte£, pr. (hat 

(one), the former. 
Üjettfett*?, pre. on the other side 

of beyond. 
3efet, %etW, at ^- now i atpresent. 
Socfy, n. yoke. 

3ofiattm6würmrf)ett, n. glow- 

worm. 
3ube, m. Jew. 
Sttcjettb, f. ?/owtfi. 

^ltttCJ, a. young, recent. 

(TCUt, f. a young woman, 

maid. 
3Üngftng, m. young man,youlh, 

lad. 
SÜtlgflte, a. youngestj last. 
3ltnfer r tn.youngster,yeunker. 
3utt0, Juno. 
Sltptter, /wpifcr. 

K. 

ÄCltfer, m. emperor. 
Äafottt, Catotn. 
$amef, n. cameZ. 
Kammer, f. Chamber. 
(ein, n. dimin. of btC 

^CWtttter, Chamber. 
^aittpf, m. combat, strvggle. 
^ampf'flraum, m. dream of 

battle. 

21* 



^anbtbat, m. candidaU. 
Äarbmal, Cardinal 
StCLXi, Charles. 
$atf)0ftfd), a. catholic. 

$a£e, f. «* 
kaufen, v. a. fo 6uy. 
Äailfmantt, m. merchant, pur- 

chaser. 
ÄCtum, ad. scarce, 7ian%. 
$eMe, f. töroaf, car%. 
$etmett, v. n. to germinate, to 

spring vp. 

«ftern, Äetne, $em, a. no. 

^etefy, m. cup, chalice. 

kennen, v. n. fo fcnow. 

^enntntß, f. knowkdge. 
Werfer, m. prison. 
Äette, f. cÄai'n. 
$e$er, m. ZiereJic. 

Ätnb, p. cÄi7d. 

ÄtttMeÜt, n. dimin. of bCtg 
$Ütb, c/Ä 

Ämbbett, f. chiidhood. 
Ätrdje, f. cÄwrcÄ. 

^trcfyfyof, m. church-yard. 
$tf3ef, m. itching, tickling, ap- 

petite. 
Micifte, f. lamentation. 
MlCLQCTl, v. n. io complain. 
fäiäQCX, m. complainant. 
Älctttg, m. sownrf. 
Älappcnt, v. n. <o cZatfe?-, fo 

ro&e, 
^(ar r a. clear, ftgTif, p«re. 



246 



V0CABULAK7, 



MlaüC; f. hoof, claw. 
föUib, n. dress, garment. 
Kfeibeit, v. a. to cover, to dress, 

to hefit. 
Klein, a. Utile, small. 
Kleinigkeit, f. small matter, tri- 
■ ße. 

KleÜtob, n.jewel. 
Klettern, v. n. to climb, to clam- 

her. 
^(tppe, f. cliff, rock, 
KlopjtO(f, name of a man. 
Klitglicf), ad. ivisely, prudently. 

Knabe, m. boy. 

Knebel, m. gag. 

Kned)t, m.-a young man, ser- 

vant. 
Knoten, m. knot. 
Knüpfen, v. a. to tie, to vnite. 
föo&l, m. cooh 

Köln, Cologne, name of a city. 
kommen, v. n. to come, to ar- 

rive, to happen. Um CtVOaß 

— , to lose a thing. 
Kompliment, n. compliment. 
König, m. king. 
KÖltigreid), n. kingdom. 
Können, v. n. to be able. 
Kopf, m. head. 

Körben, n. dim'm. of t>er 

Korb, basket. 
Körper, m. body. 
Koften, v. n. to cosL 
KÖftfid), a. costly, precious. 



Kraft, f. strength, power. 
Kraben, m. collar, cape, neck. 

Kralle, f. claw. 

Kranid), m. crane. 

Kranf, a. skk. 

Kränfen, v. a-. tbgrieve, to ver. 
Krankheit, f. disease,sickness. 
Krait$, m. crown, garland. 
Krait^, a. cross, crisp, curled. 

Krantfreffenb, a. herbivorous. 

Kreatitr, f. creature. 
Kret3, m. circle. 
Kreidigen,. v. a. to crueify. 
Kriechen, v. n. to creep, to 

crawl, to sneak. 
Krieg, m. war. 

Kriegen, v. to get, to obtain. 
. Kriegc^gott, war-god. 

Krofocilf, m. crocodile. 

Krone, f. crown. 

KrOltttafatf, n. crown-vassal. 
Kröte, f. toad. [to cringe. 

Krümmen, v. to bend, to stoop y 

KÜbf, a. cool. 
KÜfylt, a. bold. 
heit, f. boldness. 

Knfnmef, m. grief, 

Kitnbe, f. knowledge. 
Künftig, a.future. 
Kmrtf, f, art. 
Kmtjlgrijf, m. artißce. 
Knrg, a. short, bnef. 
KÜrje, f. shortness, brevity. 
KÜffen, v. a. to kiss. 



VOCABULARY. 



247 



?a6eit y v. a. to refresh, to com- 

fort. 
^ddjeht, v. n. to smile. 
£ad)Ctt, v. n. to laugh. £>a$ 

- f laughter. 

£ärf)erfttf), a. laughable, ridic- 

vlous. \tion. 

?age 7 f. Situation, state, condi- 
QüQCV, n. posilion, bed, couch. 
£amm, n. lamb. 
?anb, n. land, country. 

?attb3mattttfrf)aft, f. tu tir- 

cumstance qf belonging to the 
same country with another 
person, society of persans be- 
longing to the same country. 

?ang, a. long. ( 

2aitgbauentt>, a. durable. 

£atrcje, ad. long-. 

fangen, v. a. to give up. 

?aitgfam, a. slow, late. 
^attgfdjläfcr, m. a person that 

sleeps long, bed- presser. 
^ättgft, ad. long ago, a long 

time. 
?ajt^C r f. lance, spear. 
^ajfen, v. n. a. to let, to grant, 

to leave. 
<£a\t, f. load, bürden. 
Zaftcv, n. vice, 
Qailh, n. leaves, foliage. 
dauern, v. n. to watch, to listen, 

to lurk. 



£auj> in. course, stream. 

eit, v. n. to run. 

^aitfcfyer, m. listener, spy. 
?aitt, a. loud. ad. loudly. 
mite, f. lute. 
^efJCtt, v. d. to live, to behave. 

$>£$ — , Ufe. 
^cbeitbtg, a. live, living. 
^ebettftag, m, lifetime. 
?c6lo^ r a. lifeless, inanimate. 
?C(f CV r a. delicate, dainty, nice. 
Gebern, a. made of leather. 
^ebtß, a. empty, pure, free. 
£eer, a. empty. 
Regelt, v. a. to lay, to place. 
Legion, f. legion. 
£ef)re, f» instruetion, doctrine. 
?ebtcn r f. v. n. a. to teach. 
?ef)rer, m. leacher. 
^efyrfcfyltlc, f. lecture-room. 
^Cbrjlanb, m. the yiinistry. 
£ebrftitbe, f. lecture-room. 

school-room. 
?Clb, m. ooefy. 

^cibfldt), a. corporeal, bodily. 
SJetcfyc, f. ^/ead 6oc(j/, corpse. 
ßeidjltam, m. corpse. 
?cid)t,-a. %/rf, eas#. 
?Ctcf)ttgfcit r f- lightness, ease. 
?etb r n. gm/"» sorrow, hatred ; 

C£ tfyltt mir — , / am sonn/, 

/ regret. 
Reiben, v. a. n. to suffer. £a3 

— , suffering. 



248 



VOCABULARY. 



^etbettfcfyaft, f. emotion,passion. 
2etfe, a. low, soß, gentle. 
Reiften, v. a. to do, to perform, 

to accomplish. 
Letten, v. a. to lead. 
Renten, v. a. to turn, to dired, 

to manage. 
?emen, v. a. to leani, to teach. 
?e£t, a. last. 
?CUd)tett, v.n.to light, to shine. 

?eutd)en, pi. dim'm. of bte 

%eUte,people,folks. 
?trf)t, n. light. a. light. 

blau, a. light blue. 

?te5, a. dear, beloved. 

?te5e r f. love. 
hieben, v. a. to love. 

lieber, m. dear friend. ad. 

rather. 
QieUid), a. lovely. 
?teb, n. song, hymn. 
Stegen, v.n.to lie, to he. 
Stnbent, v. a. to soften, to mit- 

igate, to relieve. 
ftttbrimg, f. relief, comfort. 
2tppe, f. lip. 
^ffpettt, v. n. foZis/?, to whisper, 

to murmur. 
?t(l, f. art, cunning. 

Litanei), f. Utany. 

£ob, n. praise. 

?o6en, v. a. fo praise, to com- 

mend. 
SÖbfirf), a. laudable, worthy. 



?ÜCfett, v. a. to call, to entice. 
^Odfuitg, f. persuasion, entice- 

Wien/. 
^Obertt/ v. ii. to blaze, to glow, 

to burn. 

^ogtf, f. fog-i'c. 

Lorbeer! rone, f. ZawreJ croum. 

£o$faffeit, v. to set at liberty. 
So^faufett, v. to redeem, to 

ransom. 
?Öfrf)ett r v. a. to extinguish. 
?Öfege[b r n. ransom. 
$Ö)Me, m. tarn. 
?ltbecf, narne of a city. 
$\ld)$, m. Zi/n*. 
?uft, f. am 

£ufly f. pleasure, mirth. 
£utt)er, a man's name. 

M. 
^acebOUter/ m. a Macedonian. 
tyßadjen, v. a. Jo make, to do, 

to cause, 
yjlatfyt, f. might, power* 
5CT?äd)tig r a. mighty, strong. 
?Qtäbd)Cn, n. g-H maid. 
^ägbletll, n. JiMZe maid, girl. 
^ftafy^cit, f. meaZ, re/>a$*. 
5D?af)ltejt, v. a. <o wrge, to re- 

mind, to eile, to summon. 
Sfflal)mmQ, f. recollection. 
^ftafyöttteb, Mohammed. 
^ajejlät, f. majesty. 
^ajeftätlfrf), a. majestic. 



VOCABULARY. 



249 



tyflCltllCl, f. mamma. 

SßlClM, pr. people, they, we, you, 

a person, one. 
ÜJtonäjcr, e, e$, pr. to or that, 

many. pl. some, several. 
tyflCltlQtt, m. wctnt, deficiency. 
5D?atttt, m; man. 
Mannigfaltig, a. manifold. 
M&ttnltrf), a. male y manly. 
tyflCLVf, n. marrow* 
Wlavffialt, m. marshal. 
Üftäjten, v. a. fo/ee</, to falten. 
SSRütt, a. fa'rerf, /ain^. 
9Dfolttrifd), a. Moorish. 

5fflCltt$ f f. WOMSC. 

MeCCa, name of a city. 
Meer, m. sea. 

Mefyr, a. ad. more. 3e r mefyr 

linb tnefyr, more and more. 
Mefyren, v. a. to increase, to 

augment. 
Mein, deiner, pr. my, mine. 
deinen, v. n. to mean, to think, 

to love. 
Meir, a man's name. 
Meijt, a. most. ad. almost. 

Reiften, ad. ?nost. 

Meifter, m - master. 
Mefömtg, f. mention. 
Menge, f. multitude, plcnty. 
Menfd), m. a human being, 
man. 

Menfcfjenftgnr, f. human ßg- 



MeitfrfjengefÜfyf, n. Aumane 
feelittg. 

Menfcfyencjejtafr, f. kmon 

/brm. 
Menfcfyenfyer^, n. Äuman Äearf. 
Menfd) fyeit, f. humanity. 
Menfrf) (irf), a. Äuman. • 
Werfen, v. a. fo mar*, fo o&- 

serue. 
Meßa,ett>anb, m.garment icorn 

by the Rotnan-catholic clergy 

at the celebration of mass. 
Micfyef, Michael. 
tyJlilbCf a. mild, gentle, kind, 

generous. [sooth. 

MifbeW, v. a. to mitigate, to 

Minber, a. less. 

SDJinbcfl:, a. /easf. 
MÜtijter, rn. minister. 
^innetraum, m.dream oflove. 
Mifcfyen, v. a. *o wu:r. v. r. to 

meddle. 
Mtfcfyltng, f. mixture. 
§Ö2t@gcbaitt, a. misshapen. 

Mißtrauen (£)a$),distrMs*. 

5CRtt r pre. iw7ä, by, in. 
Mitbürger/ m.feUow-cüizen. 
Mitteib, n. compassion, pity. 
Mitteibtg, a. compassionate. 
Glitte, f. middle, midst. 
gittert, ad. in the midst. 
Mitternacht, f. midnight. 
Mittfyeif en, v. a. to impart, to 
communicate* 



250 



VOCABÜLARY. 



pflögen, v. n. may. 
9D?Ößfirf), a. possible. 
tyflo\)T f m. moor, negro. 
9D?o(d), m. Salamander. 
^ftonarrf), m. monarch. 
tyJlQttd), rn. monk. 
99?Önrf)3betntg, m. monkish 

knavery. 
SJftonb, m. moon. 
Monument, n. monument. 
9D?00$, n. woss. 
90?orb, m. murder. 
9D?Örber, m. murderer. 
Oftonjett, m. morning. 
rotft, n. tfäMw 0/ Me 

morning, aurora. 
fotttte, f. morning sun. 



Wliittevd)en, n. dimin. öf bxe 

^Utter, mother. 
9ftittterficf), a. motherly, ma- 
ternal. 

2Ö?nttertcinbe[ei), f. matemal 

sportiveness. 
WIÜ&, f. cap. 

N. 
^tCtrf), pre. ad. aßer, tojowards, 
according to. 

ytadjhav, m. — inn, f. «eigÄ- 

bor. 

fcfyflft, £ neighborhood. 

^tacfybarämatttt, m. neighbor. 

WadjUinhn, v. *<> ^M/c &e- 

ftcrttcfyeit, n. dimin. of 9?arf)bettt, ad. aßerwards, aßer 

ber ^ftor^enftent, the morn- that. c. q/*er, when, accord- 



ing-star. 
Wlofc$, a man's name. 
9D?Übe, a. iveary, tired. 
SJJiltfye, f. trouble,pains. 
tylUXlb, m. »iou*Ä. 
Gunter, a. awake, lively, gay. 
tyJlilXVtfd), a. morose, peevish. 
9D?ttfe, f. mwse. 
9D?nfefmann, m. mussulman. 
9flnftf, f. music. 
SDfttflfen, v. n. must, to be obll- 

ged. 
9D?lttf), m. mind, heart, courage. 
?D?ntl)tg, a. spirited,courageous. 
^Utter, f. mother. 



mg as. 

ÜftCtcfyfolcjer, m. ßllower, suc- 
cessor. 

^tacfygfÜfyett, to glow behind. 

yiadb)tyev, ad. aßerwards t aß 
ter that. 

9£ctd)f fingen, v. n. to sound öf- 
ter, to echo. [examine. 

9tCld)fef)ert, v. to look aßer, to 

5ftäd)ft, n. near. T)ev, bte 
9£äd)j?e, fellow-man, neigh- 
bor. 

?flad)t, f. night. 

3ftad)ttgaU, f. nightingale* 

9cäd)tlirf), a. m^Ä%. 



VOCABULARY. 



251 



Fladen, m. backpart ofthe neck, 

nape. 
Nabel, f. needle. 
Üftagett, v. a. n. to gnaw. 
yiatye, a. ad. nigh, near. 
NäfyeU, v. a. to seio. 
NÄfyerU, v. to bring near, to ap- 

proach. 
Üft&fytJf. seam, suture. 
Üftafyme, m. name. 
Näfymltd), a. the same, identi- 

cal. ad. namely. 

Närrcfyen, n. dimin. of ber 

yi&XX,fool. The dimin. is 
often familiarly used as a 
term of endeannent. 

Nafe, f. no5e. 

Sftatb (more commonlyNafyt), 

f. seam. 
SftattCtt, f. nation. 
Statur, f. naiure. 
Nebelt, pre. besides, by, near, 

together with. 
^cel)meit / v. a. to take. 
Reibet, m. envier. 
3fcetgcn r v. to incline, to bend, 

to approach. 
9teftt, ad. 7io. 
ÜJtetttteit/ v « a. 'o name, to call, 

to denominate. 
Ne£, n. net. 
Neu, a. netü. 
Steueret/ m. innovator. 

Neugeboren, a. newbom. 



Ntcfyt, ad. nof. 
Ntrf)t$, n. nothing. 
Ntrf)t3tt)Ürbtg, a. worthless, 

contemptible. 
Nie, ad. neuer. 

Nieberkmbe, pi. £ow> Coun- 

fries, Me Netherlands. 
Nteberldubtfrf), a. Netherland- 

ish, belonging to the Low 

Countries. 
Nteberlecjeit, v. a. to lay down, 

to deposit. 

Nteberfcfylagen, v. a. to strike, 

to overthrow. v. n. to fall 
down. 

Nteberfe£en, v. r. to sit doiun. 

fiebrig, a. low, lowly. 
NtentCUtb, pr. nobody, no one. 
Stimmer, ad. never. 
^tmmermebr, ad. never, on 

no aecount. 
Nod), c. still, yet, nor. 

fltdfö, ad. once more. 

NorbttHJtb, m- north wind. 
Notfy, f. trouble, need, xoant. 
Notfytteubtgfett, necessily. 
Nlt, m. a moment, twinkling of 

an eye. 
Üftlttt, ad. c. now, therefore, well. 

Nunmefyr, ad. now. 

Nur, ad. only, but. 
NUß, f. nut. [tage. 

yilll&Ctt, m. use, utility, advan- 
Ni)1Upl)e, f. nymph. 



252 



VOCABULARY. 



o. 

O ! 10! oh ! 
06, c. lohether, if. pre. at. 
Oben, ad. above. [shalL 

Obermarfcfyatf, m. lord-mar- 
ObrtCjfett, f. Magistrates. 
Obfrf)Ott, c. though, although. 
Obtf, 11. //'ui*. 

— bannt, m. fruit-tree. 
Obe, f. ode. 
Oebe, a. efeserf, tcas/e. 
Obenfing, m. collection ofodes. 

Ober, c. or. 

Ojfett, a. open. 

— baren, v. a. to make hnoiun, 

to disclose, to reveal. 

Oeffentftd), o. jmWic. 

Oefftteit, v. a. to open. 
JöeffltUttg, £ opening, aperture. 
Oft, ad. q/Jen. 
OfterbÜtgen, proper name. 
Ofyne, pre. ad. without, besides. 
Or?r, n. car. 

Ofywp, m. mount Olympus. 
Opfer, n. offering, sacrifice. 
Dpfem, v. a. to offer, to sacri- 
fice. 
Orben, m. order. 
Omat, m. ornament, dress. 
Ort, m. place. 

P. 
paaren, v. to pair, to match,to 
suit, tofit. 



spatf, m. n.pack. 
— en, v. a. to pack. 
^atemon, a man's naine. 
^))apa, m. papa. 
^apaget), m. parrot. 
Rapier, n. paper. 
^>ap|t, m. pope. 
Parabel, f. aparable. 
^Parlament, n. parliament. 
^)an(, a man's name. 
^)erfe, f. pearl. 
perlen, v.n.to sparkle. 
Werfer, m. a Persian. 
^erfon, f. person. 
^erfoital, n. Company of per- 

sons, playe'rs. 
-^erjTfrf), a. Persian. 
^Pcjt, f. plague. 
^pfet(, m. arrow. 
^>ferb, ii. horse. 
q}ferbrf)en, n. dimin. of bd$ 

^3fcrb, horse. 
^flan^en, r.'a. to plant. 
^fltitt, f. duly. 
q)fltfd)er, m. bungler. 
q>bantafei>, f. whim,fancy. 
^pbantajTe, f. imagination,fan- 

cy. 
tybilomeU,- f. nightingaie. . 
^MnTofoplu'e, f. phüosophy. 

fbiiiWf PhiU P- 
^>fagcn, v. a. fo plague, 
^)(a$, m. p/ace, Space, 
spiö^fid)/ a. sudden. 



VOCABULARY. 



253 



^)orf)en, v. lo beat, to menace, 

to harass, to bluster. 
^Oettftf), a. poetical 
tydtev tritt, m. noisy tread. 
^omment, Pomerania. 
9>0mp, m. pomp. 
tyQTtllQCll, name of a country. 
^cfaUHC, f. trump, large trum- 

pet. 
9>0fhtfant r m. claimanL 
^PräcfytlCJ, a. splendid, ßne. 
tyvatym, v. n. to boast. 
'Prafyfer, m - braggart, boaster. 
greifen, v. a. to praise. 
^rieftet, m. priest. 
^rtütlegtum, n. privilege. 
sprobe, f. experiment, proof, 

pattern. 
tyvOCebUV, f. proeeeding. 
^)rofe, f. prose. 
9)rofcmt$, f. province. 
prüfen, v. a. <o fry, to examine, 

to prove. 
^Uppeitfpief, n. puppet-show. 

Q. 

Dltat, f. />am, gvie/. 

Duette, Duett, f. spAng, 

fountain. 

R. 

dafrbt, Äa66i. 
[ftabe, m. raren. 
Dfacfye, f. revenge. 

22 



9?äd)er, m. avenger. 
Mcfyerbanb, f. avenging hand. 
ERaffctt, v. a. fo £a£e ?//> hastily 

and irregularly, to huddle, to 

snatch up. 
hagelt, v. n. to projeet, lo jut, 

to overtop. 
^CtUb, m. edge, brim, margin. 
dang, ra. ranÄ:. 
jlrctt, Bis contention about 

rank. 
Dfappe, m. fe^ürcÄ: fiorse. 
9?afd)ib, a man's name. 

dafen, m. twf, sod. 

dafenb, a. furious, delirious, 

wild. 
9?Cttb, m. counsel, advice, delib- 

eration. 
D?atl)en, v. a. to guess, to ad- 
vise. 
SftCtltb, m. plunder, robbery. 
D^ebcnfaft, n.juice ofthevine, 

ivine. 
D?ed)t, a. ad. right, real, well, 

very. £>a3 — , right, justice, 

law. 
ded)ten, a. in the dative, used 

as a noun, right hand. 
S^ebe, f. speech, discourse, ru- 
mor. 
Dieben, v. to speak. 
Dieb(trf), a. honest. 
Regierung, f.government,reign. 

Regnen, v. to rain. 



254 



VOCABITLARY. 



Dfctrf), a. rieh. 

dlcid), n. reign, kingdom. 

?Üeid)ötaQ, m. the ditt. 

^etcfycit, v. to reach, to extend, 

to offer. ■ 

Dfctcfytbum, n. *£efa*. 

Dfctfltrf), a. mature. ad. ma- 

turely. 
tyitil)C f f. roi'J, succession. 
Diettt, a. joure, cZecrr. 
SÄcilttgcit, v. a. fo cZean, /o ^m- 

Dfalfc, f.journey. pl. travels. 
üKetfCtt, v. n. <o travel, to jour- 

ney. £er Dfrifettbe, fraveZ- 

Zer. 
Reißen, v. a. fo fear, Zo cmZ. 

v. n. to be torn, to prevail 

with violence, to rage. 
Reitet, m. rider, horseman. 
^eltßtOU, f. religion. 
Duetten, v. a. to save, to rescue. 
yicttUMQ, f. salvation,preserva- 

tion. 
^tcfytClt, v. a. to direct, to ar- 

range, tojudge. 
dl\d)tCV, m.judge. 
$Hdb)tevftül)l,m.judgment-seat. 
^tcfytfcfymtr, f. rule, preeept, a 

guide. 
Dftcfytftatt, f. place ofexeculion. 
Dfattg, m. ring, circle. 

binnen, v. n. to run. 

Dfam, Rome. 



Konter, m. a Roman. 
SKÖmtfrf), a. Roman. 

D^ofenaurora, f. rosy mom. 

D^Ofeilflor, m. rosy bloom. 
^Ofenflocf, m. rose-bush, rose- 

tree. 
SftÖÖleÜt, n. dimin. of bte 

9?ofe, rose. 
D^OJlocf, name of a city. 
D?0tt), a. retf\ 
^Ötfyett, v. Zo redden. 
?RXld)tc$, a. proßigate, aban- 

doned. 
SRMen, v. Zo mot?e, Zo go, to 

push. 
dürfen, Hl. back. 
^RildfaUf m. relapse. [tion. 
9?uf, id. call, vocation, reputa- 
^nfen, a. to call. 
DfÜtfye, f. rest, quiet. 
Rubelt, v. n. to rest, to repose, 

to be. 
SJlufym, m. renown, glory. 
Diitfymcn, v. to praise, to cele- 

brate, to glory. 
ytttljXCU, n. to move, to touch, 

to affect. 
Rümpfen, v. a. to crook, to 

turn up, to wrinkle. 
•JKUttb, a. ad. round. 
DfrUtbC, f- circular space,round. 
^Üjlcn, v. a. to prepare. 
Sftüftig, a. stout, robust, active. 
SftUtfje, f. rod, switch. 



VOCABULARY. 



255 



S. 
^CLCilf m. a largc room, saloon. 
<&abbatb f m. sabbath. 
vSadje, f. thing, matter. 
(Satf, m. sack, bag. 

(Sacfcfyen, n. dimin. of ber 

(Sa(f, a sack, a bag. 
(Saft, m. juice, sap. 
hagelt, v. a. to say, to teil. 
<&al%, n. satt. 
(Same, m. seed. 
(Sammeln, v. to gather, to a$~ 

semble. 
(&ammt, pre. together with. 

ad. all together. 
(Sanft, a. soft, gentle. 

(Sang, m. song. 

(Sältger, m. singer, songster. 
(Sara^cner, m. a Saracen. 
(Sara^entfcf), a. Saracen. 
(Saufett, v. n. to ivhistle, to 

bluster. 
(Scfyatf), m. Shah, Persian sove- 

reign. 
(Scfyafce, m. injury, pity. (£$ 

ift — , it is a pity ; ei) — ! 

oh ! what a pity. 
(Sd)abeit, v. n. to injure. 
(Srf)äb(trf), a. injurious. 
(Scfyaf, «• sheep. 
(Srf)äfet, m. shepherd. 
(Schaffen, v.to procure, to con~ 

trive, to do, [jester. 

&&!aiUnaXV,m.pretendedfool, 



(Scfyämett, v. r. to be ashamed. 
(Sd)änben, v. a. to injure, to 

disgrace. 
(SdjänbUttg, f. abuse, dishonor. 
(Srf)arf, a. sharp, aecurate. 
(Scf)ärfett, v. n. to sharpen. 
(Srf)attert, m. shade, shadow. 
(Scfyattenfanb, n. realm ofthe 

shades. 
(Srf)af3, m. treasure. 
©djauberbaft, a. horrible. 

(Scfyauerfkf), a. awful. 

(Scfyattm, m.foam.froth. 
(Scfyaitfpief, n. speetacle, play. 
(Scheiben, v. a. to divide, to 

separate, v. n. to depart. 
(Scheuten, v. n. to shine, to ap- 

pear. 
<Sd)e(m, m. rogue, knave. 
(Sd)ete, f. shears, scissors. 
(Scfyer$, m.jest,joke. 

eit, v. n. tojest, tojoke. 

(ScfyeitfHld), a. frighlful, hide- 

ous. 
(Srf)tC?eit, v. a. to send, to pre- 

pare. v. r. to dispatch. 
(Srf)tcffaf, f.fate. 

(Schießen, v. to shoot, to 

dart. 
(Sdbtff, n. ship, vessel. 
(Srf)tmmer, m. glitter, glimmer. 
(Srf)tmment, v. n. to glitter, ie 
glimmer. 
(£d)lad)t, f. battle. 



256 



VOCABULARY. 



©cfyldf, m. sleep. 

eit, v. D. to sleep. 

©cfyfagen, v. a. to beat, to feil, 
toßx. v.r.tojight. v. n. to 
fall. 

<2>d)fatt$e, f. snake, strpent. 

©cfylctU, a. sly, cunning. 

©djledjt, a. ptoin, simple, mean. 

(Srfjfetcfyett, v. n. to sneafc, to 
s?tn£. 

<Srf)tießeit, v. a. to shut, to in- 
clude. ©trf) — , ft« tactics) 
to take close order. (Jutttt 
$l 4 et$ — , toform a circle. 

(2>d)to$, n. Zoc£, castle, palace. 

©C^tummcr, m. slumber. 

©cfytitmment, v. n. to slumler. 

©djlttttb, m. throat,gulf, abyss. 

@cf)mau$, m.feast. 

©djmcmfett, v. d. to /easf, to 

ban?wet. 

©C^mCtdjctCD, f.flattery. 
©cfytttekfyefa, v. n. to flauer, to 

caress. 
<&d)meid)tev, Iti. flatterer. 
(Sdjmetbtgen, v. to rent/er p?i- 

an£ or supple. 
©cfymerg, m. jpant, acAe. 

fydft, a. painful, aßicted. 

(^rfjmiegen, v. a. to fccntf g-enf- 

Zt/, to incline. [attire. 

©cfymütfert, v. a. to atforn, to 
©d)ltecfd)Clt, n. dimin. of bte 

@(f)ttecfe, <i snatV, 



(Bcfynetben, v. to ettf. 

SrfjlICtbcr, in. toitor. 

geiDerf, n. crtf/ü or vo- 

cation oftailors. 
(Bcfyort, ad. already, indeed. 
(Bcfyött, &.flne, beautiful. 
©cfyöltljeit, f. fceauto;. 
(SdjOOß, m. top. 
©C^rcrfeit, m. n. /rigfa, fer- 

Srfjrctfcil, v.a. tofrighten, to 

(Sdjted Itd), a. teirible. 

@d)rei)er 7 ra. wie shouting ©r 
crying aloud. 

@d)ritt, m. 5 top, pace. 

©d)Ul), m. sftoe. 

<2d)Ulb, f. gt«#, enme, Obliga- 
tion. 

©djttfter, f. Shoulder. 

©cfyütjett, v. a. to guan/, to 
jprotoc*. 

(E>d)Wad), a. weafc. 

(Sd)ttXUt, m. 5toan. 

Sd)tt>awt, m. warm, Justfe. 
<Sd)tt>ar$, a. fetocfc. 

Hält, a. rfarÄ Wue. 

©d)tt>ebefl/ v. n. to Aover, to 6e 

suspended, to fluctuate. 
©djwetgcit, v. n. to 6e siVe«/. 
(5d)tt)Cr, a. heavy, dißcult, un- 

pleasant. 
-. fällig, a. heavy, stupid. 



\ 



VOCABTJLARY. 



257 



(Sdjroert, n. sword. 
(Scfyttuntmen, v. n. to swim. 

(Sd)tt)tnge, f. pinion, wing. 
(Srf)tt>Ören, v. a. n. Jo sioear. 
(ScfyttHtr, m. oaiÄ. 
(Sctcttte, m. slave. 

(Secfyfte, a. a&rM. 
(Seefe, f. souZ. 

(Segel, n. sai7. 
(Segen, m. Messing. 
(Segen^flor, m. blessedbloom. 

Segnen, v. a. fo &Zm. 

©g^Clt, v. a. fo see. 
(Sefytteit, v. r. fo long. 
(Sef)ltfitd)t, f. longing, earnest 

desire. 
(Selbe, f. sz7&. 

(Sein, ©cm er, pr. his. 

(Seit, pre. ad. c. since. — betn, 

ad. c. since. 
(Seite, f. side. 
(Sefte, f. seef. 
(Sefltfctrifd), a. secular. 
(Selber, pr. (joined to pers. 

pron.) self,selves. 
©eftfl, pr. sc//, ad. et<en. 
(Selten, a. rare, ad.seldom. 
(Settfcuit, a. singular, odd. 

fett, f. strangeness. 

(Senat, m. Senate. 
(Settbett, v. a. to send. 
(Senten$, f. sentence. 
(Se£en, v. a. to seat, to set. v. r. 

to sit down. 

22* 



(Seltene, f. contagious disorder. 

(Seltnen, v. to sigh. 

(Setnt, v. n. to he. 

(Std), pr. one's seif, themselves. 

(Sidjef, f. sickle. 

(Sid)er, a. swre, secure, certain. 

l)ett, f. security. 

(StCt)t6ar, a. visible. 
<&{?, pr. s&e, Aer, £Ae?/, £/iem. 
(Sieben, a. seven. [male. 

(Sieben, f. jade, shrewish ft~ 
(Siebente, a. seventh. 
(Sieg, m. victory. 
(Siegen, v. n. to conquer. 
(Sieger, m. conqueror. 

(Siegel frcut$, m. garland of 

victory. 

(Siegreich), a. vidorious. 

(Sieg3gefd)rCi), n. shoutof vic- 
tory. 

(Singen, v. to sing. 
(Sinfen, v. to sink. 

(Sittn, m. sense, mind, will. 
(Sir, m. Sir. 
(Sitte, f. custom. 
(Sitten, pl. manners. 
(Sittficf), a. customary, moral. 
(St'fS, M. seat. 

— en, v. n. to sit. 

(So, ad. pr. c. so, if, ivho, which, 

that. 
(Sobomie, f. Sodomy. 
(Sogfeicf), ad. immediately, 
(Sofyn, m. son. 



258 



VOCABULARY. 



(Sotcfyer, e, e$, pr. such. 

(Sofb, m. pcry, wages. 

©olbat, m. soldier. 

(Sotten, v. n. fo owe, fo 6e o&fo'- 

ged, ought, shall, to be said. 
©Öfter, in. loß, balcony. 
©Ommer, IB. summer. 
(Sonber, a. separate y pariicular t 

peculiar. 
©cmbcrbar, a. stränge. 
(Sottbem, v. a. Jo separate. 
(Sonne, f. s«n. 
(Sonjl, ad. otherwise, besides, 

formerly. 
©Orge, tcare. 

(Spanien, Spain. 

(Spattiftf), a. Spaiiish. 
(Spät, a.ad. fate. 
(Spa^, m. sparrow. 
(Speicfyet, m. s/ntffe. 
(Speife, f./ootf. 

(Spetfen, v. fo ectf, £0 dine, to 
sup, ioßed, to entertain. 

(Sperber, Dl. sparrow-hawk. 

(Spcrttng, m. sparrow. 

(Sperren, v. a. to bar, to stop, 
to siiut, to spread. 

(Spfyärcnftang, m. music of 

the spheres. 
(Spiet, n. play. 

en, v. to play. 

(SpÜje, f. point, head, summit, 

lace. 
©ptttteW, v. to splinter. 



(Spott, m. mockery, derision. 

erei), f. mockery, derision. 

(Sprache, f. speech, language, 

conversation. 
(Sprechen, v. to speak, to de- 

clare. 

(Springqneft, f. spring, ßun- 

tain. 

(Spritzen, v. tofiy out in smalt 
particles, to emit sparks. 

(Spnr, f. track, trace. 

&taat, m. State. 

(Sta6, m. staff, stick. 

(Stabt, f. town, city. 

(Stambltf, Constantinople. 

(Stamm, w. stem, stock, race. 

(Stämpef, m. stamp, pestle. 

(Stanb, m. stand, firmncss, ac- 
complishment, condition, Or- 
der or class. Ttie (Stanbe, 
the states. 3n (Stanbe bring* 

en, to accomplish. 
(Stängef, ra. stalle. 
(Starf, a. strong, stout, large, 

numerous. 
(Stärfe, f. strenglh, size, num- 

ber. 
Stärf en, v* a. to strengthen, to 

confirm. 
©teirfrutg, f. strengthening, 

conßrmation. 
(Starr, a. stiff, rigid. 
^>tOXt f pr. instead of. 
<&tatHt, n. Statute. 



VÖCABULARY. 



259 



(Staub, m. dust, powder. 
©tautten, n. amazement. 
©teeren, v. to prick, to sting, 

to pierce. 
(Stecf en, v. to stick, to be, toput. 
(Stehen, v. n. to stand, to be, to 

continue. 
©teif, a. stiff, inflexible. 
(Steigen, v. n. to ascend, to de- 

scend. 
(Stein, m. stone. 
(Stelle, f. place, spot, Situation. 
(Stellen, v. a. to Station, toput, 

to arrange, to produce. v. r. 

fTcf> — , to appear. 

(Sterben, v. n. to die. 

(Stcrblicl), a. morlal. 
(Stent, m. star. 

(Sternenfeuern, m. starlike 

gleam. 
©tct3, ad. conlinually. 
©tetten, name of a city. 
(Sttrf), m. puneture, stab, sting, 

bite. 
(Stier, m. bull. 
(Stiftung, f.establishment, foun- 

dation. 
(Stifter, m.founder, author. 
(Still, (Stille, a. still, tranquil, 

modest. £)ie — , stillness, 

quietness. 

(Stimme, f. voiee. 
(Stimmen, v. n. to sound, to 

agree, to tune. 



(Stim, l/orehead, front. 
©tol$, a. proud, haughty. Qex 

— , pride. 
(Störung, f. Interruption, dis- 

turbance. 
(Stößig, a. apt to strike with 

the horns, butting. 
©träfe, f.punishment. 
(Strafen, v. a. to punish, to ac- 

cuse. 
(Strafyl, m. beam, ray,flash. 
(Strahlen, v. to emit rays, to 

beam, to radiale. 
(Strand), m. bush, shrub. 
©traitß, rn. ostrich. 
(Streben, v. n. to strive, to as- 

pire. £a3 — , tffort, endea- 

vor. 
(Strecf eit, v. a. to Stretch. 
(Streicl), m. stroke, trick. 
(Streit, m. combat, contention, 

dispute. 
en, v. to flght, to combat, 

to dispute. 
(Strenge, a. strict, severe. £>ie 

— , f. strietness, severity. 
©treuen, v. a. to strew. 
(Strom, m. stream, current. 
<&tXC%ex\)aU)ßt,n.haughtyhead. 
(Stitbe, f. room, Chamber. 
(StÜcf, n. piece, part, article. 

(Stubiren, v. to study. 

(Stufenleiter, £ gradual scale. 
(Stufyl, m« chair, stool, seat 



260 



VOCABULARY. 



©tttmm, a. dumb, mute. 
©tUttbe, f. hour, lesson. 
(Stürmer, m. assailant. 
©türmtfrf), a. slormy, tempes- 

tuous, noisy. 
©tÜr^Clt, v. n. tofall luith vio- 

lence. v. a. to plunge. 
©tltt^n, v. D. to push, to start, 

to be confused. 
(Sltcfyett, *• a. to seek, to endea- 

vor. 
©Uttcm, m. sultan. 
©Ünber, m. sinner. 
<3Ü$ r a. sweet. 

Kjfdt, f. sweetness. 

©tmtpctttne, f- sympathy. 



^acttttÖ, a man's name. 
ZciCt, m. time (in music.) 
ZaQ f m. day. 
XciQetaüf, m. cfru'Z?/ course. 

gage^ftcbt, n. Zig-M o/Me <%. 

£äg(icfy, a. ad. tf<%. 
Talent, n. talent. 
^tanfmait, n. talisman. 
^art^ett, v. a. n. to dance. 
tapfer, a. brave, valiant, good. 
£aurf)ett, v. a. to dip, to im- 

merse. 
£aitfettb, a. thousand. 
Ztid), m. pond. 
Zenupd, m. temple. 

fyerr, m. knight templar. 



£eitfcfö(je|Wr, f.ßgureofa 

devil. 
^eilflifcf), a. devilish, diaboli- 

cal. 
Zcut, name of a god in the 

northern mythology. 
Zfydl, n. dale, volley. 
Zi)0ltX, m. dollar. 
Z^Cit, f. deed, aclion,feat. 
Ztyeii, ßi. n.part, share. 

Clt, v. a. to divide, to share. 

Itefymeitb, a. sympathetic. 

Zfykt, n. animal, beast. 
Zl)0ma$, a man's name. 
gfyor, n. gate. 
Z\)QT,m. afool. 

Zfyxtyit, r./oiiy. 

Zbväne, f. tear. 

Zl)VQn, m. throne. 

£1)1111, v. a. n. to do, to make, 

to happen. 
Zl)ÜV, f. door. 
Zicf, a. deep, low, profound. 

2>te Zitfe, depth, abyss. 
Ztfd), m. table. 
Zit\\$ f a man's name. 
ZcdjteV, f. daughter. 
Zeh, m. dealh. 
— bett, n. death-bed. 
^ÖMtcf), a. deadly, fatal, mortal. 
Zobt, a. dead. 
lobten, v. a. to kill. 
Zoll, nri. tone, lune. 
^torquemaba, a man's name. 



VOCABULARY. 



261 



XXCIQCTI, v. to bear, to carry, to 

wear, to produce. 
^rdufeit, v. a. to give to drink, 

to water. 
Traualtar, m. nuptial altar. 
Xxaiim, m. dream. 
träumen, v. to dream. 
%V(lU\X f ad. surdy, certainly. 
%XCMXC\\b, a. sorrowing. 
%X(lüxi$, a. mournful, sad, mel- 

ancholy. 

fett, f. mclancholy, sorrow. 

treffen, v. a. to hit, to strike, 

tofind, to btfal. 
SxejfTtd), a. distinguished, ex- 

cellent. 
greiften, n. impulse,uneasiness. 
treiben, v. to drive, to move, 

to urge, toforce. 
Cremten, v. to separate. 
treten, v. to tread, to step, to 

walk, to proceed. 
£reit, a. trae, faithful. £te 

breite, truth, faithfulness. 
XreUQelicht, a. well beloved. 
gribimaf, n. tribunal. 
%T\ch f m. that which drives or 

impels, impulse, inclination, 

passion. 

Stritt fett, v. to drink. 

Xxinflieb, n. drinking-song. 
Xtitt, m. tread, step. 

trompete, f. trumpet. 
Xtojly m. consolalion. 



Xxöftcxi, v. a. to console, to com- 

fort. 
^ro^eit, v. n. to be insolent, to 

brave, to defy. 
grübe, a. troubled, dark, dull, 

sad. 
grüben, v. a. to troulle, to dim, 

to sadden. 
£runf, m. draught, drink. 
Z\ld), n. cloth. 
XÜdjtiQ, a. alle, suitable. 
ÜUgeitb, f. virtue. 

gitgenbfyaft, a. virtuous. 

%1)XmXl, m. tyrant. 

U. 
Uebett, v. a. toexercise,ioprac- 

tise, to do. 
Ueber, over, above, concerning, 

beyond. 

Ueberbenf ert, v. a. to think over, 

to meditate. 
Uebetbntß/ m. weariness, dis~ 

gust. 
Ikbemfcn, v. to overtake, io 

hurry. 
Ueberflitß, m. superfluity,abun~ 

dance. 

Uebergeben, v. a. to deliver up. 

v. r. to reich, to vomit. 

Ueberirbtfdj, a. celestiai. 

Ueberfeguttg, f. consideration, 
reflection. 

Ueberiegett, a- superior. 



262 



VOCABULARY. 



Uebermaß, n. excess, supera- 

bundance. 
Ueberrejt, m. remainder, resi- 

due. 

Ueberfcfyroemmen, v. a. to over- 

flow, tojlood. 
Ueberfc^en, v. a. to translate, 
to go beyond. 

Ueberftrömen, v. a. toflood, to 

overßow. 

Uebertragen, v. to transport, 

to carry over, to transfer, to 
translate. 

Uebertrejfen, v. a. to surpass, 

to excel. 

Ueberrmnben, v. a. to overcome. 

Heberte l)eit, v. to draw over 
something, to pass, to cover. 

Uebung, f« exercise, use. 

Ufer, m. bank, shore. 

Um, pre. around,for. \\m $U, 
in order to. 

Umarmung, f. embrace. 

Umfliegen, v. a. toflow round. 

Umgang, m. circuit,intercourse. 

Umgeben, v. a. to Surround, to 
encompass. 

Umfyer, pre. around. 

Umreißen, v. a. to pull down, 

to pull up, to destroy. 
Umfe()Clt, v. r. to looh about. 
Umfonjt, ad. gratis, in vain. 
Umffanb, m. circumslance. 
Unabhängig, a. independent. 



Unabfefytttf), a. exlendingout of 

sight, immense. 
Unauft)Ör(icf), a. incessant. 
UnaU$fpred)(itf), a. inefable, 

inexpressible. 
Unbebecft, a. uncovered, bare. 
Uubegreiflicf), a. incomprehen- 

sible. 
Unbefannt, a. unknown. 
Uubelofynt, a. unrewarded. 
Unbefrf)C(teit, a. blameless. 
Unbefd)reib(trf), a. indescriba- 

ble. 
Unbcugfam, a. inflexible. 
Unbewußt, a. unconscious. 
Unb, c. and. 

Uneub(id),a. infinite, indefinite. 
Unentbefyrtid), a.indispensdble. 
Unerwartet, a. unexpected. 
Unfel)(bar, a. infallible. 

fett/ f. infallibility. 

Ungebulb, f. impatience. 
Ungeheuer, a. immense, enor- 

mous. 

Uugerecf)t, a. unjust. 

Ungefrf)eben, part. not done, 
undone, 

Ungefegnet, a. unblest. 

Ungejtitm, m. impetuosity. 
UngettHttcr, n. tempest, storm. 
Ungesäumt, a. unbridled. 
Ung(eid), a. uneven, unequal, 

unjust, unlike. 
^rtig, a. heterogeneous. 



VOCABULARY. 



llttgfitcf, n. misfortune, calami- 
ty. 

Utk), a. unlucky, unhappy. 

Umtatltrfid), a. unnatural. 
Unnennbar, a. not to be named. 
UmtÜi?, n. inutility, vanity. 
UttnÜ^, a. useless, ineffectual. 
Ultpoettftf), a. unpoelical. 
Ultred)r, n. wrong. 

Unrnbe, f. trouUe. 

Unml)ig, a. unquiet, noisy. 
Uli 3, pr. us, to us. 
Unfcfynfb, f. innocence. 

ig, a. innocent, guiltless. 

Unfer, pr. our, of us. 
Unffc-)t6ar r a. invisible. 
UnjterMid), a. immortal. 

feit, f. immortality. 

Ulttett, ad. below. 
Unter, pie. under, bclow,among, 
during, in. [time. 

Unterbeffen, ad. in the mean 

Unterhatten, v. to hold under, 

to support, to entcrtain. v. r. 
to converse. 

Unterfrfneb, m. dif creme. 

Unterfd) lagen, v. a. to beat un- 
der, to detain or keep byfraud, 
to inlercept, to embezzle. 

Unterweifen, v. a. to instruct, 

to teach. 

Unterwcifnng, f. instruction. 
Unterwerfen, v. to subject, to 

submit. 



Unterwerfnng, f. subjection. 
Unterwürfen, v. a. to hollow 

under, to root up. 
Untäter, n. monsler. 
Untre ite, want ofßdelily, faith- 

lessness. 
UnttUberjlefyftrf), a. irresislibU. 
Untt>t((e, m. displeasure, un- 

loillingness. 
UnWtUtg, a. indignant, unwil- 

ling. 

Un$cü)(6ar, Unzählig, a. innu- 

merable. 

Urfprnng, m. origin. 

Urt()CÜ, n. judgment, sentence. 
Urtl)ei(Öfprnrf), m. sentence. 

V. 

Vam$, a man's name. 
Vater, m.father. 

(anb, n. native country. 

Vaterfanbifrf), a. relating or 

belonging to onc's country. 
SSatcrmorb, m. parricide. 

Vaterfanb'^erretter, m. sa- 

viour of one's country. 
SSerad)ten, v. a. to despise. 

Verachtung, f. contempt. 

VeränbCW, v. a. to change. 

Verbannen, v. a. to banish, to 

forbid. 

Verbergen, v. a. to conceal. 
Verbinden, v. a. to bind, to 

unite. 



264 



VOCABULARY. 



VerbÜtblUtg, f. connection. 
Verbergen, a. concealed, hid- 
den. 

Verbrechen, n. crime. 
Verbrecher, m. criminal. 
Verbreiten, v. a. to spread. 
Verbrübenmg, f. brotherhood, 

fraternization. 

Verbäd)t, m. suspicion. 
Verbädltig, a. suspected, sus- 
picious. 

Verbammen, v. n. to embank, 

to condemn. 

Verbanden, v. a. to be obliged, 

to oice, to thank. 

Verberben, v. a. to spoil, to de- 

stroy. 
Verberbftd), a. destruetive, per- 

nicious. 
Verbtenen, v. a. to deserve, to 

merit. 

Verbicnjt, n. merit 

Vererben, v. a. to transfer as 
inheritance. 

Verfahren, n. proeeeding, pro- 
cedura 

Verfliegen, v. n. toflow off, to 

pass aivay, to elapse. 
Verflitcfyen, v. a. to curse, to 

execrate. 
Verfolgung, f. pursuit, perse- 

cution, prosecution. 
Vergangen, a. ad. past, ivhat 

is past 



Vergangenheit, f. time past. 
Vergeben^/ ad. in vain. 

Vergeblid), a. vain, useless. 
Vergebnitg, f. error, offence. 
Vergeltung, f. return, recom- 
pense. 

Vergeben, v. a. to forget 

htit, f. forgetfulness, 

oblivion. 

Vergiften, v. a. to poison. 

Vergleichen, v. a. to compare, 

to settle, to reconcile. 
Vergnügt, a. pleased, content^ 

ed, happy. 

Vergolben, v. a. to gild. 
Vergönnen, v. a. to grant, to 

permit. 

Verheeren, v. a. to destroy, to 

desolate, to ravage. 

Verherrlichen, v. a. to glorify. 

Verhüllen, v. a. to cover over. 
Verirren, v. n. r. to lose one's 
way, to stray. 

Verkaufen, v. a. to seil. 
Verfaufer, m. seller. 
Verfefyren, v. a. to tum, to 

turn in traße, to pervert 
Verfemten, v. a. to mistake, to 
misapprehend. 

Verfangen, v. a. to long ßr, 

to desire. £>a$ — , longing, 
desire. 

Verleiben, v. a. to Und, to le- 

stoto. 



VOCABULARY. 265 

Verlieren, v. a. to lose. SSerfc^itrbung, f. crime, gu iit. 

Sßerfuft, m. loss. SSerfrfjttHttb'en, v. n. to vanish. 

3Sermäd)tmß, n. legacy. SSerfegCU, v. a. fo mfcplace, to 

Sßcrme^rcn, v. a. *<? increase, transpose, to transplant, to 

to multiply. e.xchange. v. n. /o ?-e/?Zy. 

Scrmefleu^Ctt, f. rashness, te- SSerjmfett, v. n. *o sräi 

roe/%. üBerfoljtteit, v. a. to reconcile, 

SBerttUfrfjen, v. a. /o mtr. *o expiate. 

Vermögen, v. to he able,to avail. Serratien, V. a. to permit. 

Qa$ — f abüity, wealtk, SBerflefyen, v. a. to widerstand, 

properly. to knoiv. 

Kerrie fymcit, V. a. to pereeive. SBerfitcftctt, v. a. to remove, to 

IßeXttUXlft, f. reason. disfigure, to dissemble. 

üBerrätfjcrtfd), a. treacherous. SBerjTcttlUtg, f. dissimulation. 

SßCVXCdcn, v. n. fo die (applied ÜBerjfttntmett, v. n. «o groio 

to animals). dumb. 

SSerremtcn, v. a. *o s/o/? or 06- Vertrauen, v. to tmst. &a$ 

struet by running in the way. — / confidence, reliance. 

SBerricfyten, v. a. to <fo, to aecom- SBertrecf nett, v. n. to dry up. 

plish. SScrurtftcifCtt, v. a. to doom, to 

%$CXtid)tl\XlQ f f. pe?formance, sentence, to condemn. 

execution. %$eX\V>a[)XllXlQ, f. safe keeping, 

%$ex$ f m. verse. custody. 

SSerfageit, v. to deny. tßeXXOaltCXl, v. a. to conduet, to 

^erfammettt, v. to collect manage. 

SSerfc^affcit, v. a. to procure. SSetWattblMtg, f. change, Irans- 

%$CV\d)CT$C\\ f v. a. to triße away, formation. 

to forfeil. 2>ertt>et)rert , v. a. fo hinder, to 

%$tx\d)ÜXl$CXl f v. a. to swalloiv, forbiol 

to devour. SScttttefitttg, f. corruption, de- 

$erfcf)marf)tett, v. n. tofaint, to cay. 

languish. SßettüWtberMtg, ^ ivonder, sur- 

^CrfcfyOttCtt, v. a. to spare, to prise. [vastation. 

forbear, to exempt. SSeVttHtftuttg, f. desolation, de- 
23 



266 



YOCABULARY. 



Scr^eit, v. n. to despair, to Sorfabf, In. predecessor, an- 



despond. 



cestor. 



SBerjefyreit, v. a. to consume, to SSorbm, ad. before, heretofore. 



tat. 

58er$etöett, v. a. to pardon, to 
forgive. 

SBcrgwctfefnng, f. despair. 

SSe^ter, m. vizier. 

35tef, a. ad. much. pl. many. 

— lcid)t ; a. perhaps. 

— Hiebt, ad. much ?nore, rather. 

^tersefytt, a.fourteen. 

SScßef, m. bird,fowl. 

$$CQkx,m.fowler. 

SSoff, n. people, nation. 

«ßott, a.full. 

^Ottenbltng, f. conclusion, ac- 

complishment. 
SBÖlftg, a.full, complete. 
SSüftftättbtg, a. complete. 
SMjfrecfeit, v. n. *o execute, fo 

accomplish. 
Sßoltüive, a man's name. 
SSoit/ pi*e. of,from,by,concern~ 

mg. 
35er, pie. ad. before, with,for, 

ago. 



SSorfommen, v. n. to come be- 
fore, to prevent, to oeeur, to 
seem. 

Serfefjett, v. to sei before, to 
appoint, to intend. 

SorjMett, v.a.to place before, 
to present, to represent. v. r. 
to represent, to imagine. 

Vortreten, v. n. to step before, 
to step forth. 

Sorübergefyett, v. n. to go by, 

to pass. 
^Ottüärtö, ad. forward, for- 

wards. 
SSorttuffeit, n. knowledge, pri~ 

vity. 
Soqetgett, v. a. to show, to 

produce, to exhibit. 
S8or£itg, rn. preference, talent. 
Sor^ftgttrf), a. distinguished, 

particidar. ad. parlicularly . 

W. 

%8ad)C, f. guard, watch. 



Sßoranbrängen, v. r. to press Sföacfyen, v. n. to wake, to watch. 

forward, to obtrude one's seif, ^ßacfyfcn, v. n. to grow, to in- 



SSorantüefyett, v. to wave before. 
SBorClUÖ, ad. before, beforehand. 

SSorfeetjgefyen, v. to pass, topass 

by. [type. 

SSorbttb, n. pattern, emblem, 



crease. 
Söadjätfyuitt, n- growth, in- 

crease. 
Sßagett, v. a. to venture, to 

hazard. 



VOCABULARY. 



267 



•Üödfyteit, a. to choose, to eled. 
3ödf)ftg, a « wanton, playfuL 
^Bafyttjuttt, m - insanity,frenzy. 
^Öafyttfmmg, a.frantic, mad. 
SOÖafyttttH^, m. insanity. 
2Öaf)f, a. true. 

2öafyrl)eit, f. truth. 

2öafb r m. wood, forest, grove. 
^ÖClftctt, v. n. <o ad, to dired, 

to dispose. 
Söcmb, f. wa«. 
SOÖCtttbufyr, f. dock, dial. 
^öaitbcf, in. morfe oflife, con- 

dud, traßck. 
SEÖCUtbeftt, v. n. fo go,£o travel, 

to wander. [travel. 

2Banbertt, v. n. to wander, to 

Söattgc, f. cfaefc. 

ÜBann, c. ad. when. 

SßBaritClt, v. a. fo warn. 

rJöavtCtt, v. <o u>ai£, to exped, 
to stayfor, to attend to, to tend. 

^Öarum, ad. iohy. 

2ÖCt^, pr, what, something. 

^Baffer, n. loater. 

gntbc, f. reservoir of wa- 
ter. 

^Befreit, v. a. to weave. v. n. to 
move. 

üßccfeu, v. a. to luake. 

^Beber, c neither. 

5öeg r m. way, path. 

^öeg, i. adv. away, go. 

^Öegett, pre. on aecount of. 



SfBegfefyreit, v. a. to turn away. 

5öeg[aflert, v. a. to ut go, to 

omit. 

SOöebe, i. woe, (SGBefje mir, tvoe 

is me !) 2(ttt »C^ftctt, mos* 

injuriously. 
^XÖd), n. iüoc, grie/", sorrow, 

throe. 
SOBeljett, v. /o &Zow, £0 move m 

<Ae aiV, fo wave. 
^öefyrto^, a. unarmed, defence- 

less. 
$öetb, n. woman, female, wife. 
SIBcttf), a. sq/lf, tender, effemi- 

naie. 
^Beicfyeit, v. n. io give way, to 

yield. 
ÜBetbC, f.food,pasture. 
^öetbCU/ v. a. £0 pasture, to 

tend a flock or herd, tofeed. 
^ÖCtgent, v. a. to refuse, to 

deny. 
5Beil)ett, v. a. to consecrate, to 

devote. 

%Beii)\\a<fyt$dbex\'o, m. Ch?ist- 

mas-eve. 

$3etf}ttatf)r36aum, m. Christ- 

mas-tree. 
%Qe\\)Xaud), m. incense. 
5ß3ctt r c. because, white, when. 
$Öetfett, v. a. to tarry. 
SßÖeÜt, m. wine. 
2öetfe, a. wise, sage. £er — , 

wise man, sage, philosopher. 



268 



VOCABULARY. 



5ö3eifc r f. mode, condition, way. 
3öeu>f)Ctr, f. wisdom. 
SEÖetß, a. white. 
SßjClt, a. distant, wide, large. 

ad.far. 
$Qeitet,farther. 
SOÖettlUig, f. dislance, space, 

opening. 
^HMcfycr, pr. who, which, some. 
5öeKe, f. waye, billow. 

SBeft, f. «>orW. 

gegenb, f. region of the 

world. 
gefcfytcfyte, f. universal his- 

tory. 

tfyetf, m. pari o/fAe world. 

Ud), a. worldly, temporal, 

lay, secular. 
SOßeitbert, v. a. to turn. v. r. to 

address eme's seZ/V apjo/r/. v. 

i). to turn. 
2öenbifrf), a. Wendish. 
^Öentß, a. ad. Utile, few. diu 

— f a little. 
%Qm\X, c. when, if. 

Cjtetd), c. though, although. 

2öer r pr. who, he who. 
^ßerbett, v. n. to make effbrls 

for obtaining a thing, to sue. 

v. a. to obtain. 
SßÖerbett, v. n. to become, to be. 
$Öerfeit/ v. a. to throw. 
5öetf, ii. work, action. 
— — ftatt/ f' work-shop. 



Sföerf^eug, n. Instrument, tool. 
5öertb r a. wor/A, valuable. 

X'Cr — , i'aiwe, worth. 
SOßefctT, n. 6eing-, essence, de- 

meanor. 
Sföeft, m. Me wes/, w?es£ i^mrf. 
5Ötberfe|en, v. r. to resist, to 

oppose. 

SOötberjrrefcen, v. n. *o sfrire 

again st, to oppose. 
rÜBte, ad. äou\ c. as. 
^Btcbcr, ad. again, anew, back. 

MÜfyett, v. to bloom again. 

erneuern, v. r. to reneiu 

itself. 
-geben, v. a. to give back, 

to restore. 

fyotett, v. a. to repeat. 

lehren, v. n. to return. 

fommett, v. n. to ceim 



again, to return. 
nefytttett, v. &.to take back, 

to take again. 
fcfyeüt, m. reßection, reful- 



gence. 

-Utn, ad. again. 



3Btefe, f. meadow. 

ty&föf a. wild, savage,ßerce. 

^ßttte, m. ivill, design, tvish. 

Um — Witten, for the sake 

f 
2öll%, a. willing. 
$ßtllf ommett, a. welcome. 
3öiOTÜI>r, f. free will, caprice, 



VOCABULARY. 



269 



SOßtfllÜfyrltcfy, a. arbitrary, ca- 

pricious. 
^OömfcV m. wind. 
SBÜtfef, m. angle, corner, nook. 
^BÜtfett, v. n. to u)ink. v. a.'to 

beckon. 
^Butter, m. winter. 
Sßgtpfef, m. top. 
$Btr r pr. we. 
SOBtrfcit, v. to operate, to influ- 

ence, to effect, to produce, to 

do. 
Sßßtrfftrf), a. adv. real, actual, 

really. 
SßßtrfUitCJ, f. Operation, effect. 
SOÖtfmar, name of a city. 

SOBtflfen, v. to know. 

SOöt^/ m. wit,sense. 

ÜBö, ad. w/tere, somewhere. 

ÜÖOgett, v. fo wäre, £o swell, to 

surge. 
ÜBofyttt, ad. whither. 
3BoM, ad. M?eZZ. 

ait r i. «>eK / comc (m / 

auf, i. on ! come on ! 

(jemittb, a. cheerful. 

getlld), m. szücei scenf, 

perfume. 
rtccfyettb, a.fragrant, odo- 



riferous, sweet-scented. 
ftctttb, m. propriety, pros- 

perity. 
tfydt, f. good aclion, bene- 

fit. 



SBofyftfyättgfett, f. beneficence. 
SfBofytteit, v. n. to dwell, to live. 
$3of)lt$tmmer, n. parlor. 

«Xöolfc, f. douc/. 

SOÖOftett, v. n. to be willing, to 

will, to wish. 
SOBotluflt, f. delight, pleasure. 
^ÖOttttt, ad. wherewiih. 
rÜöoraitf, ad. whereon, tohcre- 

upon. 
2Ö0raU$, ad. whence. 
^ÖOttlt, ad. wherein. 
WÖort, n. ivord. 
5Bc^U r ad. whereat, whereto. 
$Q\tdi)$, m. growth, shape. 
^ÖUttbe, f. wound. 
SOÖUttber, n. wonder, miracle. 

f)0(b r a. wondrously lovely. 

fraft, f. mir aculous power. 

(irf) r a. stränge, odd. 

fdf)a^ r m. wondrous trea- 

sure. 
SOÖmtftf), m. msÄ. 

SDBünfc^cn, v. a. to wisk. 
SOöürbtg, a. tuorfÄy. 

^ßttrblßeit, v. a. fo Jfa'rcfc wor- 

thy, to value. 
^BÜrgeU/ v. a. to throltle, to 

strangle, to JcilL 
^Bltrttt, m. worm. 

2öur$e[, f. root. 

rÜÖÜjle, f. </eser£, wilderness. 
$ÖÜtftett, v. n. fo rag-e,fo 6e warf. 



270 



VOCABULARY. 



ÜBÜtfyricf), m. ßurious person, 
tyrant. 

X. 

SftnteiteÖ, a man's name. 

Z. 

3ßfy(/ f. number. 
eit r v. a. to pay. 

3af)n r m. footö. 

3dnfen r v. n. to quarrel. 

%CLXt f a. tender, delicate, soß. 

Sävtlitfy, a. tender. 

3ärtttd)fett / f. tenderness. 

3 CUtfter, m. spe/Z, charm, magic. 

3(111«, m. Äec^g-e. 

3ctgeit, V. a. to show, to point 

out. 
3et[e r f. row, Zme. 
3ett> f. Jiwie, season. 
— — — getft, m. spm£ q/7/ie h'me. 

fang (eine), ßr some 

time. 
[cbc\\$, ad. as long as one 

lives. 

Ud), a. temporal, present. 

3epfyi)r, m. zephyr. 

eitgaug, m. a s/ep as nwVrf 

as zephyr s. 
3crrctßCit, v. a. fo fear, £o Jac- 

erate, fo break off. 

3erfd)(agen, v. a. to beat in 

pieces, to break. 



3erfrf)mettertt, v. a. to dash to 

pieces. 
SerjMitben, v. a. to reduce to 

dust, to disperse. 
3ett0,ett / v. to heget, to produce, 

to testify. 
3cU0ntß r D. evidente. 
3?*)$, Jupiter. 
3tef)ert / v. to draw, to attract. 

v. ii. to move slowly, to go, 

to march. 
£iev, f. ornament. 
ett, v. a. to adorn, to deco- 
rate. 
3xfdE)ettt r v. n. to whisper. 
3ttterit / v. ii. to tremble, to 

shake. 
3ottcU%ödd)en, n." thick clus- 

tering little tresses. (?Ö(f* 

d)eit is a dirnin. of btC ?0(fe, 

lock, tress.) 
3it r pre. to, at, on. ad. to, too. 
— bereiten, v. a. to prepare. 
3H(fcr6rob r n. sweet rusk. 
3ltcfertt>e(f cfyen, n. sugar-plum. 

3uerfemten, v. a. <o adjudge. 

3iter(t, ad./rsJ, atßrst. 
3uflltcf)t / f. rc/iigc, recourse. 
3ltfrtebeit / a. pleased, content- 

ed, happy. [tentment. 

3ufriebettbett, f. content, con- 
3Ufl, r m. draught, procession, 

march, expedition, trau, ßa- 

ture. 



VOCABULARY. 



271 



ßltgegett, a. present. 
3u$efyett r v. n. togo on, to come 

to, to Kappen. 
3ufltttft / f.future Urne, futuri- 

ty. 
QltUfyt, ad. last, at last. 
ßumtttfyert, v. a. to desire or 

expect, to request. 
3uttädjt^, a. next to. ad. first 

of all, shortly. 
3uitebmett / v. n. to increase, to 

augment. 
Sunetgen, v. n. to low, to in- 

cline. 

3unge, f. tongue. 

3ur, contraction of $it ber. 
3ured)t r ad. aright, rightly. 
3Üntert, v. n. to he angry. 
3tmttf, ad. back. [back. 

bringen, v. a. to bring 

3urÜCf> / same as gttrücf* 
Suritcfforbern, v. a. to demand 

back. 
3urÜcffcf)kfen, v. to cast back. 
3wMfd)teben / v. to replace, to 

put back. 



3nmfen, v. n. to call to. 
3nfammen, ad. together. 

galten, v. to keep to- 
gether, to be united. 
tiCLXXQf m. unison, har- 



mony. 



fparen, v. to reserve to- 

gether. 
3ltjtanb / m. condition, state. 
3nttagen, v. a. to carry to. v. 

r. to happen. 

3u$tef>wtg, f. help. 

QtVClV, c. certainly, indeed. 
3tt>etfet, m. doubt. 
SWeiflct, m. doubter, skeptic. 

Swerglem, n. dimin. of ber 

3tt)erg, a dwarf. 
3tt>ei), a. Iwo. 
bexXtiQ f a.oftivo meanings, 

ambiguous, equivocal. 

te, a. second. 

3tt)tngen, v. a. toforce, to con- 

strain. 
QVOVCW, m. linen thread. 
3ttHft, m. dissension, difference. 



END.